Smart solutions in full system design.
From the word itself, it defines a structure which can adapt to the changing environmental conditions is called smart. The good quality of construction work can be achieved by using smart materials like good quality of concrete, glass, steel, piezoelectric crystal, magneto-rheological fluids etc.
Hence, Smart structures can take care of the structures and resist natural calamities.
MAIN FACTORS AFFECTING STRUCTURAL HEALTH:
1. DIFFERENTIAL SETTLEMENT
It occurs when a building's piers or foundation settles unequally. Differential settlement occurs when the soil present underneath the structure expands, contracts or shifts away. This may be due to flooding, poor drainage, broken water lines, vibrations from nearby construction or poorly compacted fill soil.
2. EARTHQUAKES AND VIBRATIONS
Earthquakes occur when in Earth's crust, masses of rock slip and slide against one another. This kind of movement is most common along a fault. When pieces of crustal rock slip and move suddenly, they release colossal amount of energy which then propagates through the crust as seismic waves. At Earth's surface, these waves cause the ground to shake and vibrate, sometimes with a great intensity.
3. STRUCTURAL DISTRESS
Office, school, hospital, and parking garage facilities present many forms of structural distress that property owners and managers are forced to confront. Whether it is roof collapse, fire damage, settlement issues, or concrete cracking and spalling, TEC Services, Inc. provides complete structural engineering support.
4. CORROSION OF REINFORCEMENT
When the steel reinforcement gets corroded, the corrosion product occupies more than three times the volume of the original steel. It starts exerting great disruptive tensile stress on the surrounding concrete leading to further cracking, corrosion and more weather access.
5. TEMPERATURE STRESSES
The temperature stresses are a combination of the stresses yielding as a result of change in the specific volume of steel which has undergone martensitic transformation during hardening and the thermal stresses caused by quenching.
ADVANTAGES OF SMART STRUCTURE:
Some of the advantages of Smart structure are-
1. It takes less time and expenses in inspections.
2. The response of the structure can be monitored remotely in real time.
3. Performance of the new advanced composite materials can be monitored.
APPLICATION OF SMART STRUCTURE:
Some of the applications of Smart structure are-
1. Space Antennas
3. Deformable Mirror
RERA makes the home buying easy
The experience of purchasing home in India has been very tedious and cumbersome for most of the buyers. Unlike the Stock market which has a regulator known as SEBI, Real Estate market has none. This led to open handed builders or promoters who exploited the buyers in many ways. RERA 2016, comes with a mission to safeguard the home buyers and bring transparency in this sector.
The Inception of RERA era
RERA which stands for Real Estate Regulation & Development Act came into full force on 1 May 2017 after a long wait. Real Estate market has largely been an unregulated sector. Due to the frauds and deceptions of the builders to the gullible buyers, this sector had become infamous.
The sentiments of the house-buyers were hurt. They had to bear huge losses of loan EMIs and rents without having full or no possession of the property. If they had any complaints they had to wait for 6-7 years for a court to provide them justice. With RERA in full force now, consumers can have their voices heard at the state tribunal with the speedy dispute redressal.
What has changed?
RERA is very systematic and well-organized combinations of laws and regulations which aim to make buyers the kings and promote the real estate sector.
RERA checks on the quality of construction in a project. If consumer complaints about poor quality or damage within 5 years of possession then the developer will be responsible to fix it within a month.
Buyers should ask for the Completion and Occupancy certificates from the developers. They are very important as they ensure that the apartment is under the living condition or not. They should not occupy the apartment before these certificates are handed over to them. However, they are required to take the physical possession of the apartment within a period of 2 months of allotment of Occupancy certificate.
Energy and Buildings
Buildings do not consume, people do. According to the International Energy Outlook 2013, the energy use tracker of the US Energy Information System, the building sector accounts for more than one-fifth of total worldwide energy use, and India mirrors the trend.
The Energy Statistics 2013 of India’s National Statistical Organization (NSO) shows electricity accounted for more than 57 per cent of the total energy consumption during 2011-12 in India, and building sector is already consuming close to 40 per cent of the electricity. This is expected to increase to 76 per cent by 2040. A large quantity of incremental electricity demand will come from the residential sector in India.
Comfort defines a building -
Human thermal comfort, is the condition of surrounding thermal environment under which a person can maintain a body heat balance at normal body temperature without perceptible sweating, in general we can say a range of 25oC to 30oC, with optimum condition at 27.5oC.
Something interesting happened in India with the IT sector boom beginning from mid-90’s especially with the advent of IT complexes, BPOs, hotels etc. which led to the introduction of the new building typology. There was surge in air conditioning along with tall buildings with glass facades which were reminiscent of buildings in New York, Chicago etc. These buildings introduced air conditioning in the country in a big way.
Over the years there has been exceptional increase in demand for similar air-conditioned buildings as perception of comfort is changing rapidly. Past decade has seen growth in the numbers of theatres, malls, buses, residential apartments, schools etc. that have opted for air conditioning to meet people’s rising expectations of comfort that can now be artificially controlled.
Why buildings with glass facades have high electricity consumption?
One of the major reasons behind the increased cooling load in new buildings in the subcontinent is the growing use of ‘glazing’ — external wall made of glass — in buildings. Glass traps heat from the sun and warms up the interiors of the building. Glazing tends to reduce lighting demand by using daylight. However, along with light, the rate of heat exchange of the building with the outside environment also goes up. Thus, glazing should be optimized based on minimum specific energy demand for both air conditioning and lighting inside a building. In other words, glass usage in a building should be balanced in a way to improve day lighting without compromising the building’s thermal performance.
STOCK MARKET AND INTEREST RATES- A STORY OF UPS AND DOWNS
The ups and downs of the stock market, the ‘daytime adventure serial’ of the well-heeled, evince its dynamic nature which is a consequence of numerous factors. While the standing of an individual company fluctuates in the stock market due to its performance, which is measured by parameters such as asset turnovers and liquidity ratios etc., there are outside influences which affect stocks and the market as a whole. The interest rate is one such factor.
What is Interest rate?
It is the rate at which RBI lends to its clients. A reduction in repo rate helps the commercial banks to get money at a cheaper rate whereas an increase in repo rate will make money more expensive.
High Interest Rates
High-interest rates do not bode well for the stock market. A high-interest rate affects the Capital Expenditure of a company as banks make borrowing more expensive and companies have to pay a higher rate of interest on their loans. Consequently, less business spending can hinder the performance of a company; it might curtail expansion plans or new ventures, or even induce cutbacks. This results in the company’s estimated future cash flows to drop which in turn lowers the price of the company’s stocks.
Investing in the stock market
Investors will need the help of a Stock Broker, who will be registered with SEBI (Securities and Exchange Board of India) to convert their funds into stocks or bonds. Brokers can be individuals, or companies, both large and small. The broker manages all the transactions in place of the investor. Brokers open trading and De-mat accounts (De-mat Accounts hold the securities or stocks in electronic form) and carry out the transaction electronically from the Trade Centre.
While investing, investors must be wary of the market conditions and the patterns of price changes of the stocks they invest in. Interest rates such as the Repo Rate must be taken into account as they can lead to falling in the value of stocks of companies and thus giving lesser returns to investors.
Is Green, The new trend in Construction
The continuous degradation and depletion of natural resources have posed a difficult situation both in terms of environment and existence. This has prompted to fore towards a renewable and unadulterated approach.
What is Green Building?
Green Building thus, is a proportional method to adopt. It a practice of creating structures using the processes that are environmentally responsible and resource efficient throughout the building life cycle. From site to design, from construction to renovation and maintenance, green building ensures a perfect balance. The method nails down to sustainability along with bringing innovation. It ensures the construction of inlands, which are aesthetically sound and budget satisfying.
Adopting an Organic way
The loss of green cover in the urban areas especially has resulted in what is called ‘Heat Island’ effect. In the construction industry, Green building has come to bag an organic position. Thus, its adoption comes with a queue of benefits. Some of them are the improvement of air quality, keeping a bar on pollution and reduction of energy consumption from construction, maintenance and, demolition.
In addition, green building has the potential to attract tax benefits in future. It is highly efficient as it consumes 40 to 60% less electricity. It gears up the scope of sustainable landscaping, rainwater harvesting, and recycling organic waste into manure. It also has a high marketable image as it employs effective waste management criteria. Moreover, it restricts the use of toxic and ozone-depleting materials for the systems as well as finishes.
Don’t be mean, Go Green
These days, the phrase, “Don’t be mean, Go Green” has become more of a slogan to shout on Environment Day or write essays. Nevertheless, it means much more than that. The emphasis escalates when people are affected both, psychologically and physically. As a result, Green is the need of an hour which will get a bit highlighted when we build green.
India is making a great effort but it is still in the infancy stage. In addition, green marketing programs have not been entirely successful. At times, consumers believe the product to be of inferior quality and they do not assume it to be that green, to begin with. So, we need to educate our customers with marketing messages like “Pesticide free product is healthier”. Thus, a lot of research is required in green marketing and designing to fully explore its potential.
Utilization Of Waste Plastic In Road
Plastic roads help in making the future of the roads in best possible manner. The maintenance and traffic problems are solved with the use of plastic in the roads. ICPE promoted the use of plastic in the roads which gives more strength and durability to the roads than the conventional roads.
Some of the advantages of plastics roads are-
Maintenance cost of the roads is almost zero.
It has a good binding property of bonds between the pores.
The problem of disposal of plastic is also solved
Cost of production is also less than the conventional roads
Plastics roads can bear high temperature and much more load than bitumen roads.
Plastic roads are the future of the civil engineering. The concept used in plastic roads is fabricated and modular in which roads are light weighted and modular which make the construction simple and better than the conventional roads. It has a hollow structure in which pipelines and cable can transits easily. The design of the roads is simply circular with the aim of using recycle plastic as much as possible. The lifetime of the plastic roads is three time than the conventional roads. Time of the construction is also decreased by approx 70%.
KWS is the popular company of construction roads in Netherland who increase the development of plastic roads. Wavin and Total together have a vast knowledge and experience to the development of the plastic roads. They both took much number of steps to promote the plastic as an ingredient for the roads.
Oh! You want to be a builder in New Delhi
“Construction is an important front for solidifying the foundations of a thriving country and creating bases for the people’s happy life.” -Kim Jong Un
Whether it’s about constructing a new property or reconstructing an existing one, Delhi witness’s continuous development work. So, if you aspire to be a builder in this capital, the rules and regulations regarding construction are to be followed.
Need of Development permission :
No person can carry out any construction project on any plot or land without obtaining an approval from the Authority/concerned local body for the layout plan.
Building permit :
As per the law, it is illegal to construct, construct or make addition/alterations in any building without obtaining a separate building permit from the Authority.
The sanction comes with a validity of 5 years from the date of issue. In case of revalidation, the process needs to be done before the five-year period expires. However, revalidation is subjected to the Master Plan for Delhi/Zonal Plan Regulations and Building Bye-laws.
An on-site obligation of builders :
The owner has to give a copy of the sanctioned plan at the site. This has to be done during the construction of the building. When the plinth is constructed, the owner through his architect should inform the sanctioning authority to ensure that work conforms to the sanctioned construction plans and building bye-laws.
Think About Your Project Thoroughly!
Before you start any work, think about all the wider construction implications. For example, how an addition will affect the structural integrity of a building or how drainage will affect a site on the project. This can save huge amounts of time and money in the long run.
Sadly, according to a recent PIL, 90 percent of the buildings in Delhi are still ignoring safety norms. It suggested that there are over 1,700 establishments in New Delhi that have illegal construction. The petitioner, Arpit Bhargava stated that owners have not paid attention to the NCT of Delhi Laws (Special Provisions) Second Act, 2011 and the National Building Code, 2005 and other related laws, which has led to such constructions all over New Delhi.
Concept of uPVC Doors and Windows
UPVC is a form of plastic and stands for unsaturated polyvinyl chloride. It is also known as rigid PVC due to the fact that it is hard and not flexible. It is a resistant from of PVC that is often used for pipework and window frames. The flexibility of PVC is leveraged through a unique formulation to prepare a special uPVC blend for windows and doors. Some factors which make uPVC doors and windows ideal for creating structures are as follows:
• In India tropical wet and dry climate is more common and because of uPVC good insulating property, during summer it doesn’t allow outer heat to come inside the house and in winter it doesn’t allow inner heat to go outside of the house thus keeping homes warm in winter and cooler in summer.
• Good quality uPVC windows and doors are tested for ultraviolet resistance to ensure they won’t fade in the harsh Indian sun.
• Also, uPVC Windows and Doors are stronger because of their resistance to corrosion and cheaper than traditional ones made of wood.
• Most uPVC doors and windows are anti-crowbar, which means they cannot be forced open by an intruder in the way that traditional wooden doors and windows can be forced open.
Building green is not about a little more efficiency. It is about creating buildings that optimize on the use of local resources and most importantly they are built to reduce power, water and material requirements. According to TERI estimates, if all buildings in Indian urban areas were made to adopt green building concepts, India could save more than 8,400 megawatts of power, which is enough to light 550,000 homes a year. Green Building concept can be a blessing for the fast-developing country like India that the measures called for sustainable development can be the measures of poverty alleviation.
The concept of sustainability is quite a cognizant word. It’s often used to indicate the use of minimal exhaustible resources and promoting of “eco-friendly” materials products for the daily usage. “An investment becomes a proper investment when you invest without harming the nature’s output.”
With booming urbanization, economic growth, and rising consumption patterns in India and demand for better standards of living, a threat to natural resources has increased. Amidst this, certain households have looked in a different way. The model of “Eco-friendly House” is a low-impact, bio-friendly home, assembled from many facets from building materials to the use of renewable energy sources to design that strives for efficiency and harmony with the surrounding environment. A popular villain of all times, Prakash built his second home on the condition that it would be lit up by solar power, harness rainwater, and its interiors would be built entirely with eco-friendly materials. In recent years, Indians have taken a step forward to promote the sustainability by builiding their own natural eco houses. Of course, this was has been a great step towards architectural and cultural innovations.
Change of approach to Building designs in North-East
As diverse India is in its cultures, language, art and landscapes, a narrow bird’s neck heldconnection to the landlocked 7 states of North-East India, which in all its diversity holds enriches the nation of India.
Looking at the architecture and the construction industry of the place it has vastly different practices. With tiny houses featuring low ceilings constructed out of wood and Timber in the state of Meghalaya, Mizoram and central hills of Assam to the prevalent ‘Assam Type’ houses in the entire region.
But the pressing issue with the housings in this region is that they are not energy efficient and more often the families have to over pay to utility companies.
The game changer would if the Government regulated departments of Housing and Energy dole out subsidies to families employing energy saving architecture in a New Construction and refurbishing Existing Buildings with energy saving design upgrades.
Utilizing the full daylight for inhouse illumination can be a very smart design decision which will result in lowering the Utility Bill. And if Renewable Energy Certificates are demanded with every billing, the conversion to green energy from conventional will get a tremendous boost.
With the rest of India embracing Energy Efficient Green Design in Building Design and Operation, North-East can also initiate the process with the rest of the mainland and become a zero emitter of GreenHouseGases. So they can lead longer lives with better air quality.
1. USGBC guide to Building Design and Construction:
Safety in Construction
Safety in construction is a prime requisite, but it often gets neglected on work sites. With the advancement construction technology the need for proper attention to safety is very important because “SAFETY PROTECTS PEOPLE AS QUALITY PROTECTS JOBS”. Proper steps should be taken to improve safety on construction sites, Promotion of safety measures at sites will result in better and safe work and also results in higher productivity Isn’t it?.
Most of the accidents in construction Industry or work sites are mainly due to lack of education and knowledge regarding to safety measures. It is a well known fact that In INDIA construction industry employs more labours and therefore safety must be the prime factor that must be kept in mind.
OBJECTIVES FOR SAFETY MANAGEMENTS :
To reduce Human suffering.
To increase standard of living.
Increase in speed of construction.
Minimizing the accidents.etc
CAUSES FOR ACCIDENTS AND THEIR PREVENTIVE MEASURES (DURING CONSTRUCTION)
Failed in identifying the unsafe condition that existed before starting the construction activity.
Carelessness and ignorance of workers during construction.
Not providing safety helmets, hand gloves, earplugs etc required by workers on site.
Using improper defective materials for shuttering and scaffolding which also results in accidents.
Carelessness from supervisor too, because he is not only responsible for looking after the work but he is responsible for safety of workers too, etc.
PREVENTIVE MEASURES :
To provide safety training for workers.
Do not allow unskilled labours to work with heavy and machinery equipments.
By providing proper safety tools to the workers and provide proper lighting arrangements if work is continued day and night.
The above mentioned are only the safety causes and preventive measures for accidents that takes place in construction industry. Apart from these there are a lot of works (Excavation, Storage, Fabrication) where safety should be given prime importance.
As earlier I mentioned that Safety protects people it must be given prime importance and some rules and regulations must be made to be followed by every construction Industry and Acts should be made by the government relating to the safety.
Glass-fibre Reinforced Concrete
Glass-fiber reinforced concrete (GFRC) is a material made of a cementitious matrix composed of cement, sand, water and admixtures, in which short length glass fibers are dispersed. It has been widely used in the construction industry for non-structural elements, like façade panels, piping and channels. GFRC offers many advantages, such as being lightweight, fire resistance, good appearance and strength.
To increase the durability of fiberglass, zirconia is added. There are mainly two processes of producing glass fiber named as spray up and premix. It consists of various 200-400 individual filaments which is lightely bonded to form a stand. These stands than chopped into various lengths and used as a variety of applications. The most common type of glass fiber is e-glass. Polymers are also added to improve the physical properties like moisture movement.
- GFRC is very adaptable in that it can be poured or sprayed. Heavy equipment’s are not necessary.
- It is 75% lighter than other concrete.
- It doesn’t need any heavy instrument for spraying the GFRC.
- It is prepared of minerals and will not get easily burnt. When exposed to a flame, the concrete work as a thermal regulator.
- It is easy to cut and is very difficult to crack.
- It has a high ratio of strength to weight that’s why GFRC products are durable and light weight and cost of transportation is also less because of its light weight.
- The cost of GFRC is higher than the other concrete because fiberglass is present inside the concrete and the addition of polymer increase the price of GFRC.
- Contractor is needed to mix and spray the concrete.
- GFRC doesn’t have ductility i.e. concrete doesn’t deform under stress.
Computer Software in Designing
Ideas can never come alive without practically implementing them. Today in this technical world, to extend our imagination to the wider concept of reality, we need some software programs. They are highly preferred when we work on some architecture projects. With the help of these software programs, our designs look more realistic which helps us to work pragmatically on them. Design software programs help us to make perfect designs according to our imagination and also help us to communicate our ideas to clients. Different design software provides different features for different needs.
Revit : Autodesk Revit is one of the leading applications of architecture industry in the world. It helps in creating accurate plans for Building Information Modelling (BIM) for large projects. It involves geometrical considerations equipped with real-life information. Thus, it is mainly used for complex projects. One of its appealing advantages is that it allows more than one person to work on a particular file at a particular time. It is mainly used for modelling, generating cost schedules, collaboration, and change management.
Sketchup : It is 3D modelling software that is easy to learn and fun to use. It helps in creating accurate and highly detailed models. It is a low-cost, simplest and user-friendly software but has limited rendering capabilities. Sketchup is the great choice for anyone who is new to computer-aided design. It is excellent software to project architecture and interior design ideas.
AutoCAD : AutoCAD by Autodesk is commercial computer-aided design software. It is well known among students and professionals as it is easy to use. It can be used for drafting and designing projects involving creating, editing, viewing and printing both 2D and 3D entities. It has a set of options that facilitate the design of the plan or building in 3D. It is used for many applications such as creating blueprints for buildings, bridges, automobiles etc. The software is commonly used by architectural designers, mechanical, civil and electrical engineers to draw and design.
3D Studio Max : 3D Studio Max is the software used for 3D modelling, animation, rendering, and visualization. It is compatible with Autodesk software and some render engines which is one of its best features. It has modelling capabilities and flexible plug-in architecture. Studio Max makes it easy to convert a file from one format to another and allows saving a file in many different formats. It is frequently used by video game developers and architectural visualization studios.
There are a number of software programs which are widely used for building designs but choosing one among them is really a tough task. As we focus on increasing our engineering productivity, so we must choose the software accordingly.
Self Healing Concrete
Crack formation is very common phenomenon in concrete structure which allows the water and different type of chemical into the concrete through the cracks and decreases their durability, strength and which also affect the reinforcement when it comes in contact with water, CO2 and other chemicals. For repairing the cracks developed in the concrete, it requires regular maintenance and special type of treatment which will be very expansive. So, to overcome from this problem autonomous self-healing mechanism is introduced in the concrete which helps to repair the cracks by producing calcium carbonate crystals which block the micro cracks and pores in the concrete.
The selection of the bacteria was according to their survival in the alkaline environment such as B. pasteurii, Bacillus subtilis and B. spharicus which are mainly used for the experiments by different researchers for their study. The condition of growth is different for different types of bacteria. For the growth, bacteria were put in a medium containing different chemical at a particular temperature and for a particular time period. Bacteria improves the structural properties such as tensile strength, water permeability, durability and compressive strength of the normal concrete which was found by the performing different type of experiment on too many specimens had varying sizes used by different researchers for their study of bacterial concrete in comparison with the conventional concrete and from the experiment it was also found that use of light weight aggregate along with bacteria helps in self healing property of concrete.
For gaining the best result a mathematical model was also introduced to study the stress-strain behavior of bacteria which was used to improve the strength of concrete.
A smart helmet combines the traditional safety structure of a hard hat with leading-edge technology to create a safer helmet that’s brimming with features to boost productivity, efficiency and effectiveness.
The helmet is designed to be rugged and resistant to dust, water, and the wide range of environmental conditions which impact conventional hard helmets. The device is power packed by cameras, sensors, measuring units and smart audio system.
Smart technology has never been well-suited to jobsite conditions with dust, sand and lot of hazards that quickly destroy many consumer-grade products.The Smart Helmets has superior strength and structure and delievers the smart technology as well as protection to your head. This advanced wearable technology has robust sensors and augmented reality features designed to increase safety and productivity.
1. Smart helmets help in transferring information about critical machine processes over walky-talkies.
2. They help in improving productivity and work safety.
3. They can increase the connectivity between people, data and machines.
4. The helmet can also provide data about 3d mapping and thermal imaging.
5. Helps in increasing the efficiency of engineers, technicians and other workers in the field area.
The Demand of present time: Studio Apartments
What is Studio Apartment ?
To start further, we should know that a studio apartment, also known as a studio flat (UK), a self-contained apartment (Nigeria), efficiency apartment or bachelor apartment, is a small apartment which combines living room, bedroom, and kitchen into a single room. Such homes are more easily affordable for young people, especially for bachelors and newlywed people.
Concept of Studio apartment :
If one goes by the price one would have to shell extra money for a single-bedroom apartment. The idea of studio apartment has started to gain prominence in cities like Chennai, Bangalore, Kolkata, etc. But the concept has also gained popularity in tier-2 cities as well, due to rise in the number of bachelors moving to these cities. It has become popular among the bachelors because it is more affordable as compared to the spacious high-end apartments.
In the present times, the studio apartment is not restricted to the small 400 sq. ft to 700 sq. ft. area. Nowadays, the singles are looking for luxury studio apartments which are more spacious. The size of luxury studio apartments ranges from 1,200sq ft. to 1,600 sq. ft. and is favoured among the newlywed couples, who want to set up their home or the bachelors who are ready to pay for their luxury abode. In the last one year, around 1,400 studio apartments have been sold in the top six markets as per the news reports.
Without doubt, they are the most cost-effective residential options for people who prefer to own rather than rent. For people who are in search of affordable housing and do not want to shell out monthly rent can consider buying studio apartments.
Why constructing structures near the oceans? Why protecting the Indian coastline is important? India has a coastline of 6,100 kilometres in the main land and we depend on the Indian Ocean for bulk of the foreign trade. The total length of the coastline of the mainland, Lakshadweep group of Islands and Andaman and Nicobar group of Islands is 7,519.5 km.Coastal Engineering includes development of major/minor ports and fishery harbours by constructing coastal structures like breakwaters, jetties, groynes and reclamation bunds. Coastal development is basically required to protect the inland waterways and to provide protection from international waters. “Coastal Engineering” is a branch of civil engineering required to meet the specific demands posed by constructing at or near the coast, as well as the development of the coast itself.
CAUSES: Maintenance of coastal development arouse due the following reasons:-
- It provides a powerful means of defence in the emergence of national security.
- Problem of silting or erosion of coastline requires frequent monitoring.
- To provide protection from winds and waves.
- Construction of lighthouses, basically done to guide the navigators.
- To remove the increasing salinity in estuaries.
- To avoid beach erosion due to loss of sand.
- Potential for increased sedimentation rates and future maintenance dredging requirements.
EFFECTS: The impact of coastal development led to the following pros and cons:-
- It leads to the overall development of commerce, industry and internationals trade.
- It encourages consumption of foreign goods. The people living in distant countries consume foreign goods like medicines, machinery etc. because of this transport.
- The natural tracks like oceans and rivers can be developed and utilised in the best possible manner.
- Water transport is the cheapest mode of transportation, as more cities are improved by coastal engineering. It increases the revenue of that state. Water transport is slow in operation and consumes more time due to slow speed and circuitous routes.
- If the range of tide is more, the operations of loading and unloading are seriously affected.
- The mountainous rivers, rapids and waterfalls hinder the water transportation.
CONCLUSION: The breakwaters provided channelize the river discharge /tidal flow and help in stabilising the inlet. But the construction of breakwaters and dredging of navigational channels for port development interfere with the long shore littoral drift. The main impact of port development is accumulation on the up drift side of the long shore drift and erosion of the down drift side.The impact is prominent on the coastline having high rate of long shore sediment transport. Sand bypassing appears to be the best solution of erosion and siltation.It is necessary to understand the coastal processes and predict the likely effects before undertaking any coastal project.
Let's get Technology into construction!
Since the beginning of the civilization building and creating something innovative is the attribute of humans, from the rock cut caves and palaces to the 21st century’s skyscrapers man made marvels are awestruck to the eyes. Ancient civilization used to create the structures with stone blocks technique with the use of basic tools like stone axe, sickle, bone tools and the wonders of that era are still mesmerized us. Now a days with day by day growing population the demands of good infrastructure is increasing and to fulfill the growing demands new technology played a prominent role.
Architects and designers adopted some new technologies to build a safer and at the same time fascinating architectures.
3D Printing – In ancient times Egyptians were the first who brought the concept of concrete blocks. Concrete is the most suitable material in the construction projects, 3d printing is a technique to build complex building forms and that too in mere hours.
Smart highways – This concept was first tested in Netherland in 2014, in this the traffic markings are made up of luminous paint that glow during the dark which help the drivers and other vehicles to stay in the specific lane while driving.
Cool roofs – it’s a technology designed to increase the solar reflectance on the roofs. This helps in keeping the rooms cool during summers by reducing the temperature as more rays of the sun reflects back.
Styrofoam panels – it has been in the construction industries for the past decade. Styrofoam panels are the EPS foam fitted between the steel sheets, this helps in reducing the temperature of the room and Styrofoam panels can withstand the wind speed up to 140 mph.
These are the few examples of technological advancement in the field of construction that revolutionized the whole infrastructure and construction industries.
Rainwater Harvesting for your home
A rainwater harvesting system comprises components of various stages - transporting rainwater through pipes or drains, filtration, and storage in tanks for reuse or recharge. The mission of Bhoojal Survey is to provide rainwater-harvesting services to help solve potable, non-potable, stormwater and energy challenges throughout the India.
Install a Rain Barrel, A rain garden is a sunken landscape that uses native plants, local soil, and mulch to remove pollutants from water, and allows it to percolate into the ground. Make your own DIY Rain ChainRain chains are not only beautiful, simple to make requiring few tools and materials, but also a more attractive alternative to standard PVC (polyvinyl chloride) pipe downspouts Naturally recharge your wells and borewells Rooftop rainwater is led through pipes with a filter at the end to open dug wells for replenishing underground aquifers.
Based on this idea, the ‘Mazhapolima’ (bounty of rain) Recharge Project of Thrissur was born. As a result, today, not only is there abundant water in summer, there is also reduced salinity, turbidity, and colour in the well water. .Setting up a splash block is a great idea to divert the flowing rainwater away from the structure’s foundation. It is a piece of concrete or plastic of a roughly rectangular shape, and is placed below the downspout that carries rainwater from the roof of a house during rainfall. absorbs the force of the water that is getting diverted from the roof, and also prevents holes from being dug in the garden due to the eroding force of the pouring waterBuild a Rain Saucer If you are looking for a fast DIY way to collect rainwater without much hassle, rain saucers form a great free standing rain collection system which fill up surprisingly fast. Looking like an upside-down umbrella, the rain saucer unfolds to form a funnel which fills the containers with rainwater Reservoir for RainRainwater that falls on the rooftop, be it flat or slanting, can be made to run through a pipe to a storage facility like a sump or a tank. This water can be filtered to purify the larger particles before being stored in rainwater harvest (RWH) tanks. By using stored rainwater for washing cars and watering gardens, the use of underground water can be minimised. A win-win system for economy and environment, this also helps in saving energy and keeps the energy bill to a minimum.
Effect of GST on Real Estate
What is GST ?
GST is an Indirect Tax which has replaced many Indirect Taxes in India. The Goods and Service Tax Act was passed in the Parliament on 29th March 2017. The Act came into effect on 1st July 2017; Goods & Services Tax Law in India is a comprehensive, multi-stage, destination-based tax that is levied on every value addition.
In simple words, Goods and Service Tax (GST) is an indirect tax levied on the supply of goods and services. This law has replaced many indirect tax laws that previously existed in India. GST is one indirect tax for the entire country.
Impact on real estate buyers & investors :
Under the earlier law, buyers were liable to pay taxes depending on the construction status of the property, i.e., whether the property was under construction or complete. When purchasing a property under construction, a buyer was subjected to the payment of VAT, service tax, stamp duty, and registration charges.The biggest takeaway is that GST is a simple tax that applies to the overall purchase price. All properties under construction will be charged at 12 percent of the property value. This excludes stamp duty and registration charges.
Impact On Developers :
Previously, developers were liable to pay customs duty, central excise duty, VAT, entry taxes, etc. on construction material costs. They also had to pay a 15 percent tax on services like labour, architect fees, approval charges, legal charges, etc.
Under the new regime, however, the changes in construction costs are not as difficult. For instance, cement will now be taxed at the rate of 28 percent under GST. This is higher than the current average tax rate of approximately 23-24 percent, but a lot of additional taxes charged over the average rate will now be subsumed under GST. Iron rods and pillars used in the construction of buildings are now charged at the rate of 18 percent, which is less than the previous average rate of 19.5 percent.
Fly Ash in Concrete
Most of the common people have no idea, what the fly ash is or the use of fly ash. But in the real estate industry it is a very big deal. Fly ash is a heterogeneous by-product material produced in the combustion process of coal used in power stations. It is a fine grey colored powder having spherical glassy particles that rise with the flue gases. Fly ash is the largest industrial waste product of Earth but fortunately it is consumed in large amount by bricks and concrete makers. The largest source of energy in India is coal and burning of pulverized coal generates electric power and tons and tons of powdery fly ash residues. Major firms like NTPC or Adani powers use coal to generate electricity.
Concrete makers are using it in large amount because of its high strength and economic rates. Cement can be replaced by fly ash by up to 25% in it. More than 75% of all concrete is made with fly ash. NTPC is providing ash free of cost or at very minor charges.
Salient advantage of using fly ash in cement concrete :
- The concrete mixture generates a very low heat of hydration which prevents thermal cracking.
- The use of fly ash gives concrete good work ability, durability and finish.
- Converting released lime from hydration of OPC into additional binding material contributing additional strength to concrete mass.
- Fly ash has very small particles which makes the concrete highly dense and reduces the permeability of concrete.
- It is highly economical.
- Reduced requirement of cement for same strength thus reduced cost of concrete.
Some Disadvantages of fly ash in cement concrete :
- The quality of fly ash can affect the quality and strength of cement concrete.
- Poor quality fly ash can increase the permeability of the concrete and cause damage to the buildings.
Rubber as a Construction Material
Rubber has special properties to offer in comparison with other construction materials. The elongation in some cases can be more than 1000% and for the most part in elastic range. Metals, by contrast have very low strain values below the limit of elasticity. Rubber plantation scheme is one of the most important schemes implemented by the north east government.
USES OF RUBBER IN BUILDINGS :
- As a building material thermoplastic rubber like Santoprene is used for weather stripping windows and doors. Such kind of rubber is used as glazing gaskets due to its ability to last long in harsh weather conditions. The inside portion of the building also gets benefited from this as the air quality is kept intact.
- Rubber can be used as an anti-vibration mounts in buildings which provide protection over a wider range of frequencies, particularly at high frequencies. These are mainly needed to prevent external vibrations from affecting sensitive equipment within the building.
- Rubber can be also used for sound insulation in buildings. During the implementation of floating floor construction an air gap is created by placing a resilient material such as rubber between the timber raft and the concrete floor.
- Crumb rubber is added to a variety of sealants, coatings and caulking. It can be used for sealing surfaces, repairing small cracks, and reducing the erosion and wear of asphalt, concrete, brick, metal, wood, plastic, tile and more.
- Crumb rubber can be used for roofing purpose such as in acrylic paint to make a remarkable sealant applicable on flat roofs. This nontoxic, non-carcinogenic acrylic coating infuses recycled rubber to create a durable and waterproof rubber matrix to seal and insulate the surface. Adding rubber enhances a roofing system’s flexibility, flow characteristics, and fatigue resistance.
- It is also used for waterproofing technologies in buildings. Waterproof membranes are applied prior to adding two or three other layers to prevent moisture leakage in roofing, decking, flashing, flooring and other construction applications. The crumb rubber comprises about 15 percent of this product and it enhances resilience, flexibility.
Bus Rapid Transit System in Indore
Indore is the financial capital of Madhya Pradesh with the population of 2.3million. Indore is also rapidly growing in traffic congestion, pollution and road accident facilities. The Indore BRTS project started in 2007 under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission(JNNURM). It involves the participation of Government of India, Madhya Pradesh Government and World Bank. It is an ISO 14001:2004 certified BRTS service.
Project was initiated in 2007 with route length of 11.6km and 6km feeder. Project was started with 21stations and 34 buses. The corridor is equiped with free high speed Wi-Fi internet service for commuters, provided by free as air.
Different legal challenges during construction
• Land acquisition and encroachment level.
• National green tribunal order.
• Legal challenges of SPV.
• Resistance from citizens.
Solution and results
Seeing these difficulties innovative approach was adopted.
• Land exchange technique was adopted and become successful.
• Negotiation was done with land owners at various platforms.
• Earlier the FAR was 1.5and benefit of 2.5 was given to land owner.
• At the end acquired Rs.280 crore value land free of cost for this development.
Finally project was completed on 31st March 2013 and use of BRTS started from 10th May 2013. But again taking some relevant issues a petition was filled in high court. Entry of 4 vehicle was restricted in the BRTS lane but then citizen were requested to use BRTS lane but overtake of vehicles was strictly prohibited.
After entry of 4 wheelers, accidents increased on BRTS lane, travel time increased and traffic jams at junctions. Total 45 hearing was made and court then restricted the 4 wheelers. 70,000 passengers travel daily using I-bus which is an outstanding popularity.
Sand powder and Mortar as alternatives of Sand
Stone powder produced from stone crushing zones appears as a problem for effective disposal. Sand is a common fine aggregate used in construction work as a fine aggregate.
In this study, the main concern is to find an alternative of sand. Substitution of normal sand by stone powder will serve both solid waste minimization and waste recovery. The study focuses to determine the relative performance of concrete by using powder sand.
From laboratory experiments, it was revealed that concrete made of stone powder and stone chip gained about 15% higher strength than that of the concrete made of normal sand and brick chip. Concrete of stone powder and brick chip gained about 10% higher strength than that of the concrete normal sand and stone chip concrete. The highest compressive strength of mortar found from stone powder which is 33.02 Mpa, shows that better mortar can be prepared by the stone powder. The compressive strength of concrete from stone powder shows 14.76% higher value than that of the concrete made of normal sand. On the other hand, concrete from brick chip and stone powder produce higher compressive value from that of brick chip and normal sand concrete.
Scope of construction industry in Uttrakhand
Uttarakhand has considerably witnessed a growth in demand for real estate since 2005. The market is on an upswing mainly due to the infiltration of NRIs in the state. This has led to builders like Unites buying large lands for residential and commercial properties there. As many institutes and companies are foraying into the state, demand for both residential and commercial properties is on a rise. Anticipating further rise in the price for residential and commercial properties in the state, big and small real estate players are jostling hard to grab the land at the earliest before rates increase.
Being a recently developed state, Uttarakhand offers flourishing residential opportunities to local as well as NRI communities. This has also encouraged an increase in property prices across the state. Besides, flats and apartments, land for farmhouses, bungalows and other real estate developments are also available. Dehradun, Mussoorie, Nainital, Haridwar, Almora, Chamoli, Rudrapur and Uttarkashi are the most sought after cities and are witnessing development of projects .
The entry of new companies in Uttarakhand has also led to an increase in development of commercial properties . There has been an increase in the development of offices in Dehradun and Rudrapur.
Impact of IOT in construction
Imagination, which stimulates the entire world, is the key aspect behind every development. Obviously, it is the only thing which encourages one to think, evolve and create. “Imagine, think and create.”
IOT has come a long way and is being developed for the last few years. IOT which is an acronym for “INTERNET OF THINGS” is the most discussed topic worldwide. This technology links the entire globe through internet. There are many things which don’t work out satisfactorily without internet and IOT is the one that pops beautiful things out of it. The year, 1999 is dominant in the history of the entire universe. It changed the world and man started to think in the view of the internet.
The IOT has begun to shape the future of many industries which ultimately enhances the future economy. The development of IOT directly relates to the development of the nation.
IOT is generally meant to extend internet connectivity over a wide range of devices which may be your desktop, laptop, smartphone, or can be any device on which you can work upon. In every possible way, IOT is making the lives easier than ever. The best thing what IOT does is, it helps in construction which undoubtedly helps in boosting up the country’s environment. It has changed the entire construction industry from all angles. With the ability to connect virtually every machine, system and tool to the internet, the construction industry has been opened to a whole new world of opportunity.
Whether it’s designing a building or managing a construction project, IOT is improving almost every facet of modern day construction and industry. These days, people seem to be going mad with its tremendous contribution and technologies. IOT may be easier to describe by what it doesn’t do rather than what it does because the range of applications is vast and we cannot end up with its last application. Though IOT has done a huge and significant change in construction, we cannot think of it as an end, it is just the beginning. There are a lot many things which will be done by it only if mankind encourages it.
Recently, IOT has done an exceptionally great benefaction towards construction, ultimately leading to the progress of country in technical side. Currently, contractors in the thick of project execution have to take decisions on the ground. With IOT and embedded devices which can continuously monitor use of material, these losses can be reduced or eliminated. The ‘just in time’ process used in manufacturing can now be effectively used in the construction industry as well.
“Technology is made by the people, and people are made by the technology”.