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Energy and Buildings

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Buildings do not consume, people do. According to the International Energy Outlook 2013, the energy use tracker of the US Energy Information System, the building sector accounts for more than one-fifth of total worldwide energy use, and India mirrors the trend.

The Energy Statistics 2013 of India’s National Statistical Organization (NSO) shows electricity accounted for more than 57 per cent of the total energy consumption during 2011-12 in India, and building sector is already consuming close to 40 per cent of the electricity. This is expected to increase to 76 per cent by 2040. A large quantity of incremental electricity demand will come from the residential sector in India.

 

Comfort defines a building -

Human thermal comfort, is the condition of surrounding thermal environment under which a person can maintain a body heat balance at normal body temperature without perceptible sweating, in general we can say a range of 25oC to 30oC, with optimum condition at 27.5oC.

Something interesting happened in India with the IT sector boom beginning from mid-90’s especially with the advent of IT complexes, BPOs, hotels etc. which led to the introduction of the new building typology. There was surge in air conditioning along with tall buildings with glass facades which were reminiscent of buildings in New York, Chicago etc. These buildings introduced air conditioning in the country in a big way.

Over the years there has been exceptional increase in demand for similar air-conditioned buildings as perception of comfort is changing rapidly. Past decade has seen growth in the numbers of theatres, malls, buses, residential apartments, schools etc. that have opted for air conditioning to meet people’s rising expectations of comfort that can now be artificially controlled.

Why buildings with glass facades have high electricity consumption?

One of the major reasons behind the increased cooling load in new buildings in the subcontinent is the growing use of ‘glazing’ — external wall made of glass — in buildings. Glass traps heat from the sun and warms up the interiors of the building. Glazing tends to reduce lighting demand by using daylight. However, along with light, the rate of heat exchange of the building with the outside environment also goes up. Thus, glazing should be optimized based on minimum specific energy demand for both air conditioning and lighting inside a building. In other words, glass usage in a building should be balanced in a way to improve day lighting without compromising the building’s thermal performance.

Smart Structures Last Longer

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From the word itself, it defines a structure which can adapt to the changing environmental conditions is called smart. The good quality of construction work can be achieved by using smart materials like good quality of concrete, glass, steel, piezoelectric crystal, magneto-rheological fluids etc.
Hence, Smart structures can take care of the structures and resist natural calamities.

FACTORS AFFECTING STRUCTURAL HEALTH

1. DIFFERENTIAL SETTLEMENT
It occurs when a building's piers or foundation settles unequally. Differential settlement occurs when the soil present underneath the structure expands, contracts or shifts away. This may be due to flooding, poor drainage, broken water lines, vibrations from nearby construction or poorly compacted fill soil.

2. EARTHQUAKES AND VIBRATIONS
Earthquakes occur when in Earth's crust, masses of rock slip and slide against one another. This kind of movement is most common along a fault. When pieces of crustal rock slip and move suddenly, they release colossal amount of energy which then propagates through the crust as seismic waves. At Earth's surface, these waves cause the ground to shake and vibrate, sometimes with a great intensity.

3. STRUCTURAL DISTRESS
Office, school, hospital, and parking garage facilities present many forms of structural distress that property owners and managers are forced to confront. Whether it is roof collapse, fire damage, settlement issues, or concrete cracking and spalling, TEC Services, Inc. provides complete structural engineering support.

4. CORROSION OF REINFORCEMENT
When the steel reinforcement gets corroded, the corrosion product occupies more than three times the volume of the original steel. It starts exerting great disruptive tensile stress on the surrounding concrete leading to further cracking, corrosion and more weather access.

5. TEMPERATURE STRESSES
The temperature stresses are a combination of the stresses yielding as a result of  change in the specific volume of steel which has undergone martensitic transformation during hardening and the thermal stresses caused by quenching. 

ADVANTAGES OF SMART STRUCTURE
Some of the advantages of Smart structure are-
1. It takes less time and expenses in inspections.
2. The response of the structure can be monitored remotely in real time.
3. Performance of the new advanced composite materials can be monitored.

APPLICATION OF SMART STRUCTURE
Some of the applications of Smart structure are-
1. Space Antennas
2. Shapecons
3. Deformable Mirror

Is Green The new trend in Construction ?

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The continuous degradation and depletion of natural resources have posed a difficult situation both in terms of environment and existence. This has prompted to fore towards a renewable and unadulterated approach.

What is Green Building?

Green Building thus, is a proportional method to adopt. It a practice of creating structures using the processes that are environmentally responsible and resource efficient throughout the building life cycle. From site to design, from construction to renovation and maintenance, green building ensures a perfect balance. The method nails down to sustainability along with bringing innovation. It ensures the construction of inlands, which are aesthetically sound and budget satisfying.

Adopting an Organic way

The loss of green cover in the urban areas especially has resulted in what is called ‘Heat Island’ effect. In the construction industry, Green building has come to bag an organic position. Thus, its adoption comes with a queue of benefits. Some of them are the improvement of air quality, keeping a bar on pollution and reduction of energy consumption from construction, maintenance and, demolition.

In addition, green building has the potential to attract tax benefits in future. It is highly efficient as it consumes 40 to 60% less electricity. It gears up the scope of sustainable landscaping, rainwater harvesting, and recycling organic waste into manure. It also has a high marketable image as it employs effective waste management criteria. Moreover, it restricts the use of toxic and ozone-depleting materials for the systems as well as finishes.

Don’t be mean, Go Green

These days, the phrase, “Don’t be mean, Go Green” has become more of a slogan to shout on Environment Day or write essays. Nevertheless, it means much more than that. The emphasis escalates when people are affected both, psychologically and physically. As a result, Green is the need of an hour which will get a bit highlighted when we build green.                 

India is making a great effort but it is still in the infancy stage. In addition, green marketing programs have not been entirely successful. At times, consumers believe the product to be of inferior quality and they do not assume it to be that green, to begin with.  So, we need to educate our customers with marketing messages like “Pesticide free product is healthier”. Thus, a lot of research is required in green marketing and designing to fully explore its potential.

Oh! You want to be a builder in New Delhi

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“Construction is an important front for solidifying the foundations of a thriving country and creating bases for the people’s happy life.” -Kim Jong Un

Whether it’s about constructing a new property or reconstructing an existing one, Delhi witness’s continuous development work. So, if you aspire to be a builder in this capital, the rules and regulations regarding construction are to be followed.

Need of Development permission 

No person can carry out any construction project on any plot or land without obtaining an approval from the Authority/concerned local body for the layout plan.

Building permit 

As per the law, it is illegal to construct, construct or make addition/alterations in any building without obtaining a separate building permit from the Authority. The sanction comes with a validity of 5 years from the date of issue. In case of revalidation, the process needs to be done before the five-year period expires. However, revalidation is subjected to the Master Plan for Delhi/Zonal Plan Regulations and Building Bye-laws.

An on-site obligation of builders 

The owner has to give a copy of the sanctioned plan at the site. This has to be done during the construction of the building. When the plinth is constructed, the owner through his architect should inform the sanctioning authority to ensure that work conforms to the sanctioned construction plans and building bye-laws. 

Think About Your Project Thoroughly!
Before you start any work, think about all the wider construction implications. For example, how an addition will affect the structural integrity of a building or how drainage will affect a site on the project. This can save huge amounts of time and money in the long run.  

Sadly, according to a recent PIL, 90 percent of the buildings in Delhi are still ignoring safety norms. It suggested that there are over 1,700 establishments in New Delhi that have illegal construction. The petitioner, Arpit Bhargava stated that owners have not paid attention to the NCT of Delhi Laws (Special Provisions) Second Act, 2011 and the National Building Code, 2005 and other related laws, which has led to such constructions all over New Delhi.

 

Change of approach to Building designs in North-East

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As diverse India is in its cultures, language, art and landscapes, a narrow bird’s neck heldconnection to the landlocked 7 states of North-East India, which in all its diversity holds enriches the nation of India. Looking at the architecture and the construction industry of the place it has vastly different practices. With tiny houses featuring low ceilings constructed out of wood and Timber in the state of Meghalaya, Mizoram and central hills of Assam to the prevalent ‘Assam Type’ houses in the entire region.
 
But the pressing issue with the housings in this region is that they are not energy efficient and more often the families have to over pay to utility companies. The game changer would if the Government regulated departments of Housing and Energy dole out subsidies to families employing energy saving architecture in a New Construction and refurbishing Existing Buildings with energy saving design upgrades. Utilizing the full daylight for inhouse illumination can be a very smart design decision which will result in lowering the Utility Bill. And if Renewable Energy Certificates are demanded with every billing, the conversion to green energy from conventional will get a tremendous boost.

With the rest of India embracing Energy Efficient Green Design in Building Design and Operation, North-East can also initiate the process with the rest of the mainland and become a zero emitter of GreenHouseGases. So they can lead longer lives with better air quality.

Reference
1.    USGBC guide to Building Design and Construction: 
http://in.usgbc.org/resources/leed-reference-guide-building-design-and-construction

 

Safety in Construction

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Safety in construction is a prime requisite, but it often gets neglected on work sites. With the advancement construction technology the need for proper attention to safety is very important because “SAFETY PROTECTS PEOPLE AS QUALITY PROTECTS JOBS”. Proper steps should be taken to improve safety on construction sites, Promotion of safety measures at sites will result in better and safe work and also results in higher productivity Isn’t it?.

Most of the accidents in construction Industry or work sites are mainly due to lack of education and knowledge regarding to safety measures. It is a well known fact that In INDIA construction industry employs more labours and therefore safety must be the prime factor that must be kept in mind.

OBJECTIVES FOR SAFETY MANAGEMENTS 

To reduce Human suffering.
To increase standard of living.
Increase in speed of construction.
Minimizing the accidents.etc

CAUSES FOR ACCIDENTS AND THEIR PREVENTIVE MEASURES (DURING CONSTRUCTION)

CAUSES 

Failed in identifying the unsafe condition that existed before starting the construction activity.
Carelessness and ignorance of workers during construction.
Not providing safety helmets, hand gloves, earplugs etc required by workers on site.
Using improper defective materials for shuttering and scaffolding which also results in accidents.
Carelessness from supervisor too, because he is not only responsible for looking after the work but he is responsible for safety of workers too, etc.

PREVENTIVE MEASURES 

To provide safety training for workers.
Do not allow unskilled labours to work with heavy and machinery equipments.
By providing proper safety tools to the workers and provide proper lighting arrangements if work is continued day and night.

The above mentioned are only the safety causes and preventive measures for accidents that takes place in construction industry. Apart from these there are a lot of works (Excavation, Storage, Fabrication) where safety should be given prime importance.

CONCLUSION

Safety protects people, it must be given prime importance and some rules and regulations must be made to be followed by every construction Industry and Acts should be made by the government relating to the safety.

Computer Software in Building and Architecture Design

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Ideas can never come alive without practically implementing them. Today in this technical world, to extend our imagination to the wider concept of reality, we need some software programs. They are highly preferred when we work on some architecture projects. With the help of these software programs, our designs look more realistic which helps us to work pragmatically on them. Design software programs help us to make perfect designs according to our imagination and also help us to communicate our ideas to clients. Different design software provides different features for different needs.

Revit : Autodesk Revit is one of the leading applications of architecture industry in the world. It helps in creating accurate plans for Building Information Modelling (BIM) for large projects. It involves geometrical considerations equipped with real-life information. Thus, it is mainly used for complex projects. One of its appealing advantages is that it allows more than one person to work on a particular file at a particular time. It is mainly used for modelling, generating cost schedules, collaboration, and change management.

Sketchup : It is 3D modelling software that is easy to learn and fun to use. It helps in creating accurate and highly detailed models. It is a low-cost, simplest and user-friendly software but has limited rendering capabilities. Sketchup is the great choice for anyone who is new to computer-aided design. It is excellent software to project architecture and interior design ideas.

AutoCAD :  AutoCAD by Autodesk is commercial computer-aided design software. It is well known among students and professionals as it is easy to use. It can be used for drafting and designing projects involving creating, editing, viewing and printing both 2D and 3D entities. It has a set of options that facilitate the design of the plan or building in 3D. It is used for many applications such as creating blueprints for buildings, bridges, automobiles etc.  The software is commonly used by architectural designers, mechanical, civil and electrical engineers to draw and design.

3D Studio Max :  3D Studio Max is the software used for 3D modelling, animation, rendering, and visualization. It is compatible with Autodesk software and some render engines which is one of its best features. It has modelling capabilities and flexible plug-in architecture. Studio Max makes it easy to convert a file from one format to another and allows saving a file in many different formats. It is frequently used by video game developers and architectural visualization studios.

There are a number of software programs which are widely used for building designs but choosing one among them is really a tough task. As we focus on increasing our engineering productivity, so we must choose the software accordingly.

 

Self Healing Concrete

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Crack formation is very common phenomenon in concrete structure which allows the water and different type of chemical into the concrete through the cracks and decreases their durability, strength and which also affect the reinforcement when it comes in contact with water, CO2 and other chemicals. For repairing the cracks developed in the concrete, it requires regular maintenance and special type of treatment which will be very expansive. So, to overcome from this problem autonomous self-healing mechanism is introduced in the concrete which helps to repair the cracks by producing calcium carbonate crystals which block the micro cracks and pores in the concrete.

The selection of the bacteria was according to their survival in the alkaline environment such as B. pasteurii, Bacillus subtilis and B. spharicus which are mainly used for the experiments by different researchers for their study. The condition of growth is different for different types of bacteria. For the growth, bacteria were put in a medium containing different chemical at a particular temperature and for a particular time period. Bacteria improves the structural properties such as tensile strength, water permeability, durability and compressive strength of the normal concrete which was found by the performing different type of experiment on too many specimens had varying sizes used by different researchers for their study of bacterial concrete in comparison with the conventional concrete and from the experiment it was also found that use of light weight aggregate along with bacteria helps in self healing property of concrete.

For gaining the best result a mathematical model was also introduced to study the stress-strain behavior of bacteria which was used to improve the strength of concrete.
 

Materials used for Green Building in North-East India

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A green building depletes the natural resources to a minimum during its construction and operation. The aim of a green building design is to minimize the demand on non-renewable resources, maximize the utilization efficiency of these resources when in use, and maximize the reuse, recycling, and utilization of renewable resources.Here are some commonly used materials for green building construction.

Bamboo : Due to the scarcity of wood in recent years, bamboo has gained great importance as a suitable alternative to wood. Particularly, bamboo is suitable for low cost housing in the earthquake-prone regions of North-East India due to its sturdiness and versatility. This versatile forest produce lends itself to be manufactured into mat-based industrial products such as bamboo mat board, bamboo mat veneer composite, bamboo mat moulded products, bamboo mat corrugated sheet for roofing, etc. 

Rice Husk Ash bricks : Rice Husk Ash (RHA) produced after burning of rice husks can be used as an admixture for concrete. RHA has high reactivity and pozzolanic property, which improves the workability and solidity of the cement. 

Plastic bricks : Plastic bricks are used in highway and railway infrastructure. Plastic from millions of bottles and bags are melted and moulded in the form of bricks are used in the construction of the roads. This has considerably enhanced the elastic nature of the surface helping in more load-bearing capacity of highways. In India, this technology has been initiated on an experimental basis for railway sleepers, but was stopped since the danger to fire is a major concern. 

Bagasse particle board : Bagasse is the residual pulp from sugarcane after the juice has been extracted This by-product is now being used as a substitute for wood in particle boards that are light and low cost. The widest application of bagasse is in the manufacture of particle boards as low-cost construction materials and for the furniture industries. 

Stone : Stone is a naturally occurring and a long-lasting building material. Some Stone structures-built hundreds of years ago are still in existence without much abrasion.Stones are good against weathering hence they can be used to construct exterior walls, steps, exterior flooring etc.
    
Natural Fibre Floor : Naturally occurring materials like bamboo, wool and cotton fibre carpets, cork etc. can be used for flooring purposes.

Straw Bale : Straw bale is another green building material which can be used as framing material for building because of good insulating properties. They can also act as soundproof materials.Non-load bearing walls of straw bale can be used as fill material in between columns and, in beams framework is recommended.Since air cannot pass through them, straw bales also have some resistance to fire.

Thatch : Thatch is nothing but dry straw, dry water reed, dried rushes etc. These are the oldest roofing materials which are still in use in some remote locations of the world and even in cities for aesthetic attractions.It is cheaply available for roofing and a good insulator too.

Green Building Structure ConceptGreen building (also known as green construction or sustainable building) refer to both a structure and the application of processes that are environmentally responsible and resource- efficient throughout a building’s life cycle: from planning to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition. This requires close culmination and cooperation of the contractor, the architects, the engineers, and the client at all project stages. The motto of green buildings is to reduce the overall effect of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by • Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources • Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity • Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation Environmental benefits of green building: • Enhance and protect biodiversity and ecosystems • Improve air and water quality • Conserve and restore natural resources Economic benefits of green building: • Reduce operating costs • Improve occupant productivity • Enhance asset value and profits • Optimize life- cycle economic performance Social benefits of green building: • Enhance occupant health and comfort • Improve indoor air quality • Minimize strain on local utility infrastructure • Improve overall quality of life Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is a set of rating systems for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of green buildings which was developed by the US Green Building Council. Other certificates system that confirms the sustainability of buildings is the British BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method) for buildings and large scale developments. Currently, World Green Building Council is conducting research on the effects of green buildings on the health and productivity of their users and is working with World Bank to promote Green Buildings in Emerging Markets through EDGE (Excellence in Design for Greater Efficiency) Market Transformation Program and certification. Building green is not merely about enhanced efficiency. It is about creating buildings that optimize on the use of local materials, local ecology and most importantly, they are built to reduce power, water and material requirements. Thus, if these things are kept in mind, then we will realize that our traditional architecture was I fact, very green. According to TERI (The Energy and Resource Institute) estimates, if all buildings in Indian urban areas were made to adopt green building concepts, India could save more than 8400 megawatts of power, which is enough to light 550000 homes a year! Green building (also known as green construction or sustainable building) refer to both a structure and the application of processes that are environmentally responsible and resource- efficient throughout a building’s life cycle: from planning to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition. This requires close culmination and cooperation of the contractor, the architects, the engineers, and the client at all project stages. The motto of green buildings is to reduce the overall effect of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by • Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources • Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity • Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation Environmental benefits of green building: • Enhance and protect biodiversity and ecosystems • Improve air and water quality • Conserve and restore natural resources Economic benefits of green building: • Reduce operating costs • Improve occupant productivity • Enhance asset value and profits • Optimize life- cycle economic performance Social benefits of green building: • Enhance occupant health and comfort • Improve indoor air quality • Minimize strain on local utility infrastructure • Improve overall quality of life Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is a set of rating systems for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of green buildings which was developed by the US Green Building Council. Other certificates system that confirms the sustainability of buildings is the British BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method) for buildings and large scale developments. Currently, World Green Building Council is conducting research on the effects of green buildings on the health and productivity of their users and is working with World Bank to promote Green Buildings in Emerging Markets through EDGE (Excellence in Design for Greater Efficiency) Market Transformation Program and certification. Building green is not merely about enhanced efficiency. It is about creating buildings that optimize on the use of local materials, local ecology and most importantly, they are built to reduce power, water and material requirements. Thus, if these things are kept in mind, then we will realize that our traditional architecture was I fact, very green. According to TERI (The Energy and Resource Institute) estimates, if all buildings in Indian urban areas were made to adopt green building concepts, India could save more than 8400 megawatts of power, which is enough to light 550000 homes a year!

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Green building (also known as green construction or sustainable building) refer to both a structure and the application of processes that are environmentally responsible and resource- efficient throughout a building’s life cycle: from planning to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition. This requires close culmination and cooperation of the contractor, the architects, the engineers, and the client at all project stages. 

The motto of green buildings is to reduce the overall effect of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by 
• Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources 
• Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity 
• Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation 
Environmental benefits of green building
• Enhance and protect biodiversity and ecosystems 
• Improve air and water quality 
• Conserve and restore natural resources 
Economic benefits of green building
• Reduce operating costs 
• Improve occupant productivity 
• Enhance asset value and profits 
• Optimize life- cycle economic performance 
Social benefits of green building
• Enhance occupant health and comfort 
• Improve indoor air quality 
• Minimize strain on local utility infrastructure 
• Improve overall quality of life 

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is a set of rating systems for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of green buildings which was developed by the US Green Building Council. Currently, World Green Building Council is conducting research on the effects of green buildings on the health and productivity of their users and is working with World Bank to promote Green Buildings in Emerging Markets through EDGE (Excellence in Design for Greater Efficiency) Market Transformation Program and certification. 

Building green is not merely about enhanced efficiency. It is about creating buildings that optimize on the use of local materials, local ecology and most importantly, they are built to reduce power, water and material requirements. Thus, if these things are kept in mind, then we will realize that our traditional architecture was In fact, very green. According to TERI (The Energy and Resource Institute) estimates, if all buildings in Indian urban areas were made to adopt green building concepts, India could save more than 8400 megawatts of power, which is enough to light 550000 homes a year! 

The Demand of present time: Studio Apartments

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What is Studio Apartment ?

To start further, we should know that a studio apartment, also known as a studio flat (UK), a self-contained apartment (Nigeria), efficiency apartment or bachelor apartment, is a small apartment which combines living room, bedroom, and kitchen into a single room. Such homes are more easily affordable for young people, especially for bachelors and newlywed people.

Concept of Studio apartment :

If one goes by the price one would have to shell extra money for a single-bedroom apartment. The idea of studio apartment has started to gain prominence in cities like Chennai, Bangalore, Kolkata, etc. But the concept has also gained popularity in tier-2 cities as well, due to rise in the number of bachelors moving to these cities. It has become popular among the bachelors because it is more affordable as compared to the spacious high-end apartments.

In the present times, the studio apartment is not restricted to the small 400 sq. ft to 700 sq. ft. area. Nowadays, the singles are looking for luxury studio apartments which are more spacious. The size of luxury studio apartments ranges from 1,200sq ft. to 1,600 sq. ft. and is favoured among the newlywed couples, who want to set up their home or the bachelors who are ready to pay for their luxury abode. In the last one year, around 1,400 studio apartments have been sold in the top six markets as per the news reports.

Without doubt, they are the most cost-effective residential options for people who prefer to own rather than rent. For people who are in search of affordable housing and do not want to shell out monthly rent can consider buying studio apartments.

Let's get Technology into construction!

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Since the beginning of the civilization building and creating something innovative is the attribute of humans, from the rock cut caves and palaces to the 21st century’s skyscrapers man made marvels are awestruck to the eyes. Ancient civilization used to create the structures with stone blocks technique with the use of basic tools like stone axe, sickle, bone tools and the wonders of that era are still mesmerized us. Now a days with day by day growing population the demands of good infrastructure is increasing and to fulfill the growing demands new technology played a prominent role.

Architects and designers adopted some new technologies to build a safer and at the same time fascinating architectures.

3D Printing – In ancient times Egyptians were the first who brought the concept of concrete blocks. Concrete is the most suitable material in the construction projects, 3d printing is a technique to build complex building forms and that too in mere hours.

Smart highways – This concept was first tested in Netherland in 2014, in this the traffic markings are made up of luminous paint that glow during the dark which help the drivers and other vehicles to stay in the specific lane while driving.

Cool roofs – it’s a technology designed to increase the solar reflectance on the roofs. This helps in keeping the rooms cool during summers by reducing the temperature as more rays of the sun reflects back.

Styrofoam panels – it has been in the construction industries for the past decade. Styrofoam panels are the EPS foam fitted between the steel sheets, this helps in reducing the temperature of the room and Styrofoam panels can withstand the wind speed up to 140 mph.

These are the few examples of technological advancement in the field of construction that revolutionized the whole infrastructure and construction industries.

Coastal Engineering

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Why constructing structures near the oceans? Why protecting the Indian coastline is important? India has a coastline of 6,100 kilometres in the main land and we depend on the Indian Ocean for bulk of the foreign trade. The total length of the coastline of the mainland, Lakshadweep group of Islands and Andaman and Nicobar group of Islands is 7,519.5 km.Coastal Engineering includes development of major/minor ports and fishery harbours by constructing coastal structures like breakwaters, jetties, groynes and reclamation bunds.  Coastal development is basically required to protect the inland waterways and to provide protection from international waters. “Coastal Engineering” is a branch of civil engineering required to meet the specific demands posed by constructing at or near the coast, as well as the development of the coast itself. 

CAUSES

  • It provides a powerful means of defence in the emergence of national security.
  • Problem of silting or erosion of coastline requires frequent monitoring.
  • To provide protection from winds and waves.
  • Construction of lighthouses, basically done to guide the navigators.
  • To remove the increasing salinity in estuaries.
  • To avoid beach erosion due to loss of sand.
  • Potential for increased sedimentation rates and future maintenance dredging requirements.

EFFECTS

  • It leads to the overall development of commerce, industry and internationals trade.
  • It encourages consumption of foreign goods. The people living in distant countries consume foreign goods like medicines, machinery etc. because of this transport.
  • The natural tracks like oceans and rivers can be developed and utilised in the best possible manner.
  • Water transport is the cheapest mode of transportation, as more cities are improved by coastal engineering. It increases the revenue of that state. Water transport is slow in operation and consumes more time due to slow speed and circuitous routes.
  • If the range of tide is more, the operations of loading and unloading are seriously affected.
  • The mountainous rivers, rapids and waterfalls hinder the water transportation.

CONCLUSION 

The breakwaters provided channelize the river discharge /tidal flow and help in stabilising the inlet. But the construction of breakwaters and dredging of navigational channels for port development interfere with the long shore littoral drift. The main impact of port development is accumulation on the up drift side of the long shore drift and erosion of the down drift side.The impact is prominent on the coastline having high rate of long shore sediment transport. Sand bypassing appears to be the best solution of erosion and siltation.It is necessary to understand the coastal processes and predict the likely effects before undertaking any coastal project.

Rainwater Harvesting for your home

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A rainwater harvesting system comprises components of various stages - transporting rainwater through pipes or drains, filtration, and storage in tanks for reuse or recharge. The mission of Bhoojal Survey is to provide rainwater-harvesting services to help solve potable, non-potable, stormwater and energy challenges throughout the India.

Install a Rain Barrel, A rain garden is a sunken landscape that uses native plants, local soil, and mulch to remove pollutants from water, and allows it to percolate into the ground. Make your own DIY Rain ChainRain chains are not only beautiful, simple to make requiring few tools and materials, but also a more attractive alternative to standard PVC (polyvinyl chloride) pipe downspouts Naturally recharge your wells and borewells Rooftop rainwater is led through pipes with a filter at the end to open dug wells for replenishing underground aquifers.

Based on this idea, the ‘Mazhapolima’ (bounty of rain) Recharge Project of Thrissur was born. As a result, today, not only is there abundant water in summer, there is also reduced salinity, turbidity, and colour in the well water. .Setting up a splash block is a great idea to divert the flowing rainwater away from the structure’s foundation. It is a piece of concrete or plastic of a roughly rectangular shape, and is placed below the downspout that carries rainwater from the roof of a house during rainfall. absorbs the force of the water that is getting diverted from the roof, and also prevents holes from being dug in the garden due to the eroding force of the pouring waterBuild a Rain Saucer If you are looking for a fast DIY way to collect rainwater without much hassle, rain saucers form a great free standing rain collection system which fill up surprisingly fast. Looking like an upside-down umbrella, the rain saucer unfolds to form a funnel which fills the containers with rainwater Reservoir for RainRainwater that falls on the rooftop, be it flat or slanting, can be made to run through a pipe to a storage facility like a sump or a tank. This water can be filtered to purify the larger particles before being stored in rainwater harvest (RWH) tanks. By using stored rainwater for washing cars and watering gardens, the use of underground water can be minimised. A win-win system for economy and environment, this also helps in saving energy and keeps the energy bill to a minimum.

Effect of GST on Real Estate

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What is GST ?

GST is an Indirect Tax which has replaced many Indirect Taxes in India. The Goods and Service Tax Act was passed in the Parliament on 29th March 2017. The Act came into effect on 1st July 2017; Goods & Services Tax Law in India is a comprehensive, multi-stage, destination-based tax that is levied on every value addition.

In simple words, Goods and Service Tax (GST) is an indirect tax levied on the supply of goods and services. This law has replaced many indirect tax laws that previously existed in India. GST is one indirect tax for the entire country.

Impact on real estate buyers & investors 

Under the earlier law, buyers were liable to pay taxes depending on the construction status of the property, i.e., whether the property was under construction or complete. When purchasing a property under construction, a buyer was subjected to the payment of VAT, service tax, stamp duty, and registration charges.The biggest takeaway is that GST is a simple tax that applies to the overall purchase price. All properties under construction will be charged at 12 percent of the property value. This excludes stamp duty and registration charges.

Impact On Developers 

Previously, developers were liable to pay customs duty, central excise duty, VAT, entry taxes, etc. on construction material costs. They also had to pay a 15 percent tax on services like labour, architect fees, approval charges, legal charges, etc.

Under the new regime, however, the changes in construction costs are not as difficult. For instance, cement will now be taxed at the rate of 28 percent under GST. This is higher than the current average tax rate of approximately 23-24 percent, but a lot of additional taxes charged over the average rate will now be subsumed under GST. Iron rods and pillars used in the construction of buildings are now charged at the rate of 18 percent, which is less than the previous average rate of 19.5 percent.
 

Fly Ash in Concrete

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Most of the common people have no idea, what the fly ash is or the use of fly ash. But in the real estate industry it is a very big deal. Fly ash is a heterogeneous by-product material produced in the combustion process of coal used in power stations. It is a fine grey colored powder having spherical glassy particles that rise with the flue gases. Fly ash is the largest industrial waste product of Earth but fortunately it is consumed in large amount by bricks and concrete makers. The largest source of energy in India is coal and burning of pulverized coal generates electric power and tons and tons of powdery fly ash residues. Major firms like NTPC or Adani powers use coal to generate electricity.

Concrete makers are using it in large amount because of its high strength and economic rates. Cement can be replaced by fly ash by up to 25% in it. More than 75% of all concrete is made with fly ash. NTPC is providing ash free of cost or at very minor charges.

Salient advantage of using fly ash in cement concrete 

  • The concrete mixture generates a very low heat of hydration which prevents thermal cracking.
  • The use of fly ash gives concrete good work ability, durability and finish.
  • Converting released lime from hydration of OPC into additional binding material contributing additional strength to concrete mass.
  • Fly ash has very small particles which makes the concrete highly dense and reduces the permeability of concrete.
  • It is highly economical.  
  • Reduced requirement of cement for same strength thus reduced cost of concrete.

Some Disadvantages of fly ash in cement concrete 

  • The quality of fly ash can affect the quality and strength of cement concrete.
  • Poor quality fly ash can increase the permeability of the concrete and cause damage to the buildings.

Bus Rapid Transit System in Indore

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Indore is the financial capital of Madhya Pradesh with the population of 2.3million. Indore is also rapidly growing in traffic congestion, pollution and road accident facilities. The Indore BRTS project started in 2007 under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission(JNNURM). It involves the participation of Government of India, Madhya Pradesh Government and World Bank. It is an ISO 14001:2004 certified BRTS service.

Project Basics
Project was initiated in 2007 with route length of 11.6km and 6km feeder. Project was started with 21stations and 34 buses. The corridor is equiped with free high speed Wi-Fi internet service for commuters, provided by free as air.
    
Different legal challenges during construction
•    Land acquisition and encroachment level.
•    National green tribunal order.
•    Legal challenges of SPV.
•    Resistance from citizens.

Solution and results
Seeing these difficulties innovative approach was adopted.
•    Land exchange technique was adopted and become successful.
•    Negotiation was done with land owners at various platforms.
•    Earlier the FAR was 1.5and benefit of 2.5 was given to land owner.
•    At the end acquired Rs.280 crore value land free of cost for this development.

Finally project was completed on 31st March 2013 and use of BRTS started from 10th May 2013. But again taking some relevant issues a petition was filled in high court. Entry of 4 vehicle was restricted in the BRTS lane but then citizen were requested to use BRTS lane but overtake of vehicles was strictly prohibited. 
After entry of 4 wheelers, accidents increased on BRTS lane, travel time increased and traffic jams at junctions. Total 45 hearing was made and court then restricted the 4 wheelers. 70,000 passengers travel daily using I-bus which is an outstanding popularity.
 

Impact of IOT in construction

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Imagination, which stimulates the entire world, is the key aspect behind every development. Obviously, it is the only thing which encourages one to think, evolve and create.  “Imagine, think and create.”

IOT has come a long way and is being developed for the last few years. IOT which is an acronym for “INTERNET OF THINGS” is the most discussed topic worldwide. This technology links the entire globe through internet. There are many things which don’t work out satisfactorily without internet and IOT is the one that pops beautiful things out of it. The year, 1999 is dominant in the history of the entire universe. It changed the world and man started to think in the view of the internet. 

The IOT has begun to shape the future of many industries which ultimately enhances the future economy. The development of IOT directly relates to the development of the nation.

IOT is generally meant to extend internet connectivity over a wide range of devices which may be your desktop, laptop, smartphone, or can be any device on which you can work upon. In every possible way, IOT is making the lives easier than ever. The best thing what IOT does is, it helps in construction which undoubtedly helps in boosting up the country’s environment. It has changed the entire construction industry from all angles. With the ability to connect virtually every machine, system and tool to the internet, the construction industry has been opened to a whole new world of opportunity. 

Whether it’s designing a building or managing a construction project, IOT is improving almost every facet of modern day construction and industry. These days, people seem to be going mad with its tremendous contribution and technologies. IOT may be easier to describe by what it doesn’t do rather than what it does because the range of applications is vast and we cannot end up with its last application. Though IOT has done a huge and significant change in construction, we cannot think of it as an end, it is just the beginning. There are a lot many things which will be done by it only if mankind encourages it.
    
Recently, IOT has done an exceptionally great benefaction towards construction, ultimately leading to the progress of country in technical side. Currently, contractors in the thick of project execution have to take decisions on the ground. With IOT and embedded devices which can continuously monitor use of material, these losses can be reduced or eliminated. The ‘just in time’ process used in manufacturing can now be effectively used in the construction industry as well.

“Technology is made by the people, and people are made by the technology”.

Rubber as a Construction Material

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Rubber has special properties to offer in comparison with other construction materials. The elongation in some cases can be more than 1000% and for the most part in elastic range. Metals, by contrast have very low strain values below the limit of elasticity. Rubber plantation scheme is one of the most important schemes implemented by the north east government.

USES OF RUBBER IN BUILDINGS 

As a building material thermoplastic rubber like Santoprene is used for weather stripping windows and doors. Such kind of rubber is used as glazing gaskets due to its ability to last long in harsh weather conditions. The inside portion of the building also gets benefited from this as the air quality is kept intact.

Rubber can be used as an anti-vibration mounts in buildings which provide protection over a wider range of frequencies, particularly at high frequencies. These are mainly needed to prevent external vibrations from affecting sensitive equipment within the building.

Rubber can be also used for sound insulation in buildings. During the implementation of floating floor construction an air gap is created by placing a resilient material such as rubber between the timber raft and the concrete floor.

Crumb rubber is added to a variety of sealants, coatings and caulking. It can be used for sealing surfaces, repairing small cracks, and reducing the erosion and wear of asphalt, concrete, brick, metal, wood, plastic, tile and more.

Crumb rubber can be used for roofing purpose such as in acrylic paint to make a remarkable sealant applicable on flat roofs. This nontoxic, non-carcinogenic acrylic coating infuses recycled rubber to create a durable and waterproof rubber matrix to seal and insulate the surface. Adding rubber enhances a roofing system’s flexibility, flow characteristics, and fatigue resistance.

It is also used for waterproofing technologies in buildings. Waterproof membranes are applied prior to adding two or three other layers to prevent moisture leakage in roofing, decking, flashing, flooring and other construction applications. The crumb rubber comprises about 15 percent of this product and it enhances resilience, flexibility.

Painting Your House

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Why painting is necessary?

 Protection! Paint is used to protect your house from the effects of water and sun.
 Creates a clean & professional feel.
 You should paint your house every 2-3 years.
 Wooden buildings are usually painted because paint prevents water seeping into   the wood and making it rot.
 Painting the house to enhance our environment & make them different &   increase their value.
 
 Which paint to choose?
 

 Purpose- Basically it depends on the factor that for what purpose you are painting the house. Is it for yourself or on a rental or  selling purpose?

 Life-  A poorly done paint job can force you to repaint in just a couple of years, but knowing how to properly prep for painting your  house exterior and care for it afterward can extend the life of the paint job significantly—possibly by up to several years.

 Cost-  Your budget is your first priority. You also want to make your paint cost effective. Even if your spending a good amount of  money then you’ll need a good quality and texture.

 PROCESS OF PAINTING

 PREPARE YOUR WALL FOR PAINT
 
A good idea is to remove furniture from the room altogether, if possible.
 Dust and clean the walls.
 Scrape any cracked or flaking paint with a paint scraper. 
 Before painting, protect wall sconces and wall trim with painters’ tape.
 
 APPLICATION
 Cleaning of the surface
 Scrubbing of the surface
 Applying coat of primer
 Applying two coats of putty (If high quality needed)
 Applying the final coat of paint
 
 PURPOSE – INTERIOR OR EXTERIOR

 For Interior

 There are two ways we provide for the Interior

 DISTEMPER- OBD (OIL BOUND DISTEMPER) & DRD (DRY DISTEMPER)
 PLASTIC EMULSION- BASIC,PERMIUM & LUXURY

 For Exterior

 There are three ways we provide for the Exterior painting

 CHALK (SAFEDI)
 PUTTY
 EMULSION
 BASIC
 PREMIUM
 LUXURY
 

TYPE OF PAINTS
                                                      PLASTIC EMULSION PAINTS

 The emulsion paints are durable and have good color retention property for a longer period.
 The application of emulsion paint is on interior walls and ceilings.
 They don’t give a hard surface after drying as in the case of oil paints.

                                                             DISTEMPERS

 The basic constituent of Distemper Paint is chalk, lime, and water. Distemper Paint is also known as cement paint.
 They are a cheaper option and they stay good for more than 3 to 4 years. 
 Distemper Paints are used for both interior and exterior walls
 Distemper Paints doesn’t need any primer quoting can be directly applied on cement surface without any preparations.
                                                                PUTTY

 Applying wall putty on your walls before getting them painted ensures a smooth and even finish!
 It is applied before the final paint so that the life of the paint increases.
 The best part about wall putty is that it can be used on both dry and wet walls, and also be applied on interior as well as    exterior wall finishing.
 It is essential to keep in mind that the wall putty must be applied to the walls only after the first primer coat has dried.
                                                                 CHALK

 This type of paint gives surfaces a dreamy, matte look.
 It’s used for creating an aged appearance, and can be distressed easily.
 Finish you get with Chalk Paint is not so satisfying.
 It’s often used with soft wax, which seals the paint and leaves a silky finish. And being low-VOC and water-based, its thick    consistency makes it  easy to use.

THE POPULAR BRANDS

 ASIAN PAINTS
 
APEX ULTIMA- Asian Paints Apex Ultima is a water based. 100% Acrylic smooth emulsion with silicon additives that offers an antialgal  and high-   performance exterior wall finish.
 ROYALE LUXURY EMULSION- When your home looks great, you feel great. Give your walls a silky glowing appearance with Royale Luxury  Sheen Emulsion, an exquisite emulsion paint that provides a luxurious finish.
 
 DULUX PAINTS
 SILK VELVET- Dulux Velvet Touch Persian Silk is an ultra-stylish finish from the Velvet Touch family that helps you fashion your  walls as an   extension of your lifestyle.
 BISON- It is tough & durable product that is suitable for application over previously coated and weathered clad surfaces.

 NEROLAC
 
BEAUTY- It is a specially developed. economical interior emulsion for a distinctly rich and smooth finish. Its optimum performance,   with respect to   decoration and protection, is through an ideal combination of pigments and extenders, dispersed in a copolymer   emulsion.
 LOTUS TOUCH- It is meant for interior wall finishing applications to render the wall with a rich look and elegant sheen. It is based   on emulsion   polymer made with novel chemistry, to impart good, durable, smooth finish, with good bonding to the substrate.
 IMPRESSIONS- It is a premium quality Architectural coating specially formulated by using pure acrylic latest and high micron iced  pigments so as   to impart smooth velvet finish with excellent wash ability
 

 NEED A PROFESSIONAL?

 We provide you experties with experience.
 We will guide and help you through whole process.
 We will help you to choose the paint and right material.
 We will make it cost effective.

 

Benefits of Building Information Model in construction

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Architecture is in the middle of its biggest transformation since the introduction of computers. The current generation is adopting new technologies which are converging to transform every phase of the design and build process. In this technology revolutionary world, BIM is a simple enough idea: a single digital model of a building that everyone-architect, client, suppliers, builders, and environmental managers can work on.
 
BIM stands for "Building Information Modeling" or "Building Information Model". It is a process in which a description is made on designing a building cooperatively using one comprehensible system of computer models rather than as a separate set of drawings. The architects and contractors create and manage 3D building data during its development. 

It is a manifold multi-phase process that collects input from team members to model the components and tools that will be used during the construction process to create a unique perspective of the building process. The technology is something which is more about the process than the product. BIM is the current star player in the construction industry. The phrase "Building Information" doesn't mean only the 3D geometry of the building. That is just one of the information which is needed in the model.

"BIM will only enable you to build what the construction industry enables you to build." 

BIM has its many applications in various fields of construction such as architecture, sustainability, structures, MEP, utilities, road construction, Scheduling, property management etc. It allows for flexibility in the exploration and changes to project design or documentation process at any time without any hassle to the design team. It also enables for design and documentation to be done concurrently instead of serially. Using BMI allows for more work to be done by a smaller team.

Future Potential
BIM is relatively new technology, especially in the construction sector. It will offer a lot of values in terms of increasing visualization, productivity, the speed of delivery, planning of construction credentials. It will reduce overall cost and link vital information such as vendors for specific materials. 

Green Building Structure ConceptGreen building (also known as green construction or sustainable building) refer to both a structure and the application of processes that are environmentally responsible and resource- efficient throughout a building’s life cycle: from planning to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition. This requires close culmination and cooperation of the contractor, the architects, the engineers, and the client at all project stages. The motto of green buildings is to reduce the overall effect of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by • Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources • Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity • Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation Environmental benefits of green building: • Enhance and protect biodiversity and ecosystems • Improve air and water quality • Conserve and restore natural resources Economic benefits of green building: • Reduce operating costs • Improve occupant productivity • Enhance asset value and profits • Optimize life- cycle economic performance Social benefits of green building: • Enhance occupant health and comfort • Improve indoor air quality • Minimize strain on local utility infrastructure • Improve overall quality of life Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is a set of rating systems for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of green buildings which was developed by the US Green Building Council. Other certificates system that confirms the sustainability of buildings is the British BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method) for buildings and large scale developments. Currently, World Green Building Council is conducting research on the effects of green buildings on the health and productivity of their users and is working with World Bank to promote Green Buildings in Emerging Markets through EDGE (Excellence in Design for Greater Efficiency) Market Transformation Program and certification. Building green is not merely about enhanced efficiency. It is about creating buildings that optimize on the use of local materials, local ecology and most importantly, they are built to reduce power, water and material requirements. Thus, if these things are kept in mind, then we will realize that our traditional architecture was I fact, very green. According to TERI (The Energy and Resource Institute) estimates, if all buildings in Indian urban areas were made to adopt green building concepts, India could save more than 8400 megawatts of power, which is enough to light 550000 homes a year! Green building (also known as green construction or sustainable building) refer to both a structure and the application of processes that are environmentally responsible and resource- efficient throughout a building’s life cycle: from planning to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition. This requires close culmination and cooperation of the contractor, the architects, the engineers, and the client at all project stages. The motto of green buildings is to reduce the overall effect of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by • Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources • Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity • Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation Environmental benefits of green building: • Enhance and protect biodiversity and ecosystems • Improve air and water quality • Conserve and restore natural resources Economic benefits of green building: • Reduce operating costs • Improve occupant productivity • Enhance asset value and profits • Optimize life- cycle economic performance Social benefits of green building: • Enhance occupant health and comfort • Improve indoor air quality • Minimize strain on local utility infrastructure • Improve overall quality of life Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is a set of rating systems for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of green buildings which was developed by the US Green Building Council. Other certificates system that confirms the sustainability of buildings is the British BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method) for buildings and large scale developments. Currently, World Green Building Council is conducting research on the effects of green buildings on the health and productivity of their users and is working with World Bank to promote Green Buildings in Emerging Markets through EDGE (Excellence in Design for Greater Efficiency) Market Transformation Program and certification. Building green is not merely about enhanced efficiency. It is about creating buildings that optimize on the use of local materials, local ecology and most importantly, they are built to reduce power, water and material requirements. Thus, if these things are kept in mind, then we will realize that our traditional architecture was I fact, very green. According to TERI (The Energy and Resource Institute) estimates, if all buildings in Indian urban areas were made to adopt green building concepts, India could save more than 8400 megawatts of power, which is enough to light 550000 homes a year!

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Green building (also known as green construction or sustainable building) refer to both a structure and the application of processes that are environmentally responsible and resource- efficient throughout a building’s life cycle: from planning to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition. This requires close culmination and cooperation of the contractor, the architects, the engineers, and the client at all project stages. 

The motto of green buildings is to reduce the overall effect of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by 
• Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources 
• Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity 
• Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation 
Environmental benefits of green building
• Enhance and protect biodiversity and ecosystems 
• Improve air and water quality 
• Conserve and restore natural resources 
Economic benefits of green building
• Reduce operating costs 
• Improve occupant productivity 
• Enhance asset value and profits 
• Optimize life- cycle economic performance 
Social benefits of green building
• Enhance occupant health and comfort 
• Improve indoor air quality 
• Minimize strain on local utility infrastructure 
• Improve overall quality of life 

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) is a set of rating systems for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of green buildings which was developed by the US Green Building Council. Currently, World Green Building Council is conducting research on the effects of green buildings on the health and productivity of their users and is working with World Bank to promote Green Buildings in Emerging Markets through EDGE (Excellence in Design for Greater Efficiency) Market Transformation Program and certification. 

Building green is not merely about enhanced efficiency. It is about creating buildings that optimize on the use of local materials, local ecology and most importantly, they are built to reduce power, water and material requirements. Thus, if these things are kept in mind, then we will realize that our traditional architecture was In fact, very green. According to TERI (The Energy and Resource Institute) estimates, if all buildings in Indian urban areas were made to adopt green building concepts, India could save more than 8400 megawatts of power, which is enough to light 550000 homes a year! 

New Rules and Regulations affecting construction in Punjab

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The Punjab Cabinet, led by Chief Minister Amarinder Singh, paved the way for easing building rules to give a further boost to the construction industry, while facilitating better urban planning and development in the state. The cabinet stamped its approval on the Punjab Urban Planning and Development Rules-2018, providing for purchasable unlimited floor area ratio (FAR) for group housing, commercial, public office, hotel, and industrial buildings while increasing permissible FAR for residential development and educational buildings. 

Other essential features of the Punjab Urban Planning and Development Rules-2018 include a distinct provision for rental housing/hostel, dhaba, miniplex and multiplex, wholesale trade/warehouse/integrated freight complex, besides increase in commercial use in group housing projects from 0.20 percent to 1 percent of total area. Apart from this, 5 percent additional ground coverage has been permitted in the case of the retail service industry, while ground coverage for the commercial building has been increased from 40 percent to 45 percent, the official spokesperson said after the Cabinet meeting. 

A new provision has been incorporated for orphanage home, old age home, children's institute/school for mentally challenged or physically handicapped persons. Under the amended rules, scrutiny for building plan approval of a school or care center for disabled persons/mentally challenged persons, orphanage and old age home would not be chargeable. Besides, an additional 5 percent floor area ratio (FAR) free of charge and 100 percent exemption of building scrutiny fee has been allowed on submission of green building certificate.

The rules also have a mandatory provision for rooftop solar photovoltaic installation for electricity generation in buildings.The spokesperson said that the provisions of the latest National Building Code-2016 have been incorporated in these building rules. 

The Town and Country Planning Organization (TCPO) of India had framed Model Building Bylaws in 2016 and had requested all states to adopt and implement these, along with the National Building Code-2016.Various organizations have also requested the state government to revise the building rules, taking into consideration the hardships faced by the owners of different categories of the buildings outside municipal limits and due to the technological advancement in building construction activities and construction material.

Planning in Construction

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Planning is one of those aspects that affects the outcome of so many different things in life. Planning is an orderly / step by step proposal on how an end product / goal will be achieved and when it comes to construction, this starts the day the idea to put up a structure is conceived.
 
Whether documented (as should ideally be the case) or not, a project plan should address the following areas with regard to the project; 
• The scope of the project i.e. time and cost – within what time do you want to complete your construction and working within what budget? 
• Objectives of the project – what kind of structure are you setting up and what will be the necessary requirements needed to be put in place to ensure that the project meets its intended objectives?  
• Milestones – what activity or stage of the project will signify substantial progress? 
• A work schedule and breakdown structure – given the different tasks that make up the construction process, it is important to clearly indicate when each of these tasks will be carried out and the systematic sequence that the different tasks will follow. 
• Progress tracking – with respect to the schedule, one should be able to track the progress of the project based on actual output against planned output.
 
Before the construction is started, a several stages of preparation have been carried out in order to have the most efficient construction operation. 
PREPARATION STAGES 
1. Site Investigation 

Desktop study is conducted where the initial study is done using the available data and information given.  Then, the site investigation is conducted. Boring method can be adopted to identify the soil profile. Laboratory tests are conducted to determine the soil bearing strength.  
2. Site Preparation 
Firstly, site clearing and demolition activities are conducted where tree, stump and all vegetation are removed and existing buildings are demolished. This is followed by earthworks activity, where a massive quantities of soil need to be moved. Bulldozer and backhoe are used during the earthworks. Perimeter fencing is important to ensure that the construction can be operated safely.  Temporary access road, water, electricity, phone and air conditioning are ensured available to optimize the efficiency of construction works.

CONSTRUCTION PLANNING CAN SAVE MONEY AND TIME

Construction planning can help minimize costs by optimizing resource and equipment utilization. Even for small residential projects, you may have to lease the necessary equipment. On large commercial projects, leasing or buying specialized equipment is expensive, and maximizing utilization reduces expenses. 

In a complex project, construction planning also organizes and coordinates the many moving parts. The process improves communication among team members and stakeholders, and it reveals unrealistic assumptions or weak logic. With a properly planned project, everyone knows when subcontractors are supposed to show up and what works are needed to complete before their arrival. The materialsand equipmentshouldn’t be kept lying around for days or weeks, taking up space and possibly incurring excess rental costs because they arrived long before it was needed.

Since, construction planning takes place before work begins, there is opportunity to anticipate problems and plan solutions before they occur. Those benefits translate into time efficiency during construction itself, as well as a superior solution because a planhaven’t devised under pressure. Construction planning can pave the way toward more innovative methods of solving building challenges.
 

prefabricated wooden cottages

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Prefabrication is the practice of assembling components of a structure in a factory or other manufacturing site, and transporting complete assemblies or sub-assemblies to the construction site where the structure is to be located. Prefabricated wooden cottages are one of the smartest and quickest ways to get your dream house. 
This structure is constructed under the supervision of skilled, professional production and engineering team and the material that is being used is pre-engineered, just need to assemble it at the required site. Thus, it saves a lot of time. It just takes a few weeks to construct these cottages. An owner can customize each wood-house as per his requirements.

Which material is used in wooden cottages?
The material used in these cottages, is engineered wood that is already being treated to make it suitable for long term usage. Though, there are lots of choices for windows and doors but either PVC or hardwood can be used as a material for these types of cottages. These types of windows make these cottages, water and dust proof and prove to be termite resistant.


How wooden cottages made leak proof?
Wooden ceiling roof is applied with SBS (a bituminous membrane) which fill in all gaps and joints of the wooden structure. All joints are applied with MS sheet to make the joints water proof. A final layer of Fiber Glass Shringles in laid over to protect this membrane against the heat and water.


Does pre-engineered wooden cottage lasts long?
A pre-engineered wooden cottage can serve for 30-50 years, with proper approach to its building, depending upon the thickness of wood being used in the construction of cottages. Wood has a termite coated paint on it. It is chemically treated and made bitter for termite to attack. Moreover, advanced technologies in wood production allow to prevent and forget a lot of negative processes like twisting, cracking, decay and discoloration. After the building of a house is finished, it is necessary to make treatment with special protective compositions in order to protect house for long years. With proper maintenance and repair, this life can further increases.

What are the unique features that these cottages offer?
Wooden cottages serve us with numerous benefits. Not only these wooden cottages lead towards the green environmental protection, natural decoration, and high quality but also detail oriented and provide a complete construction of wooden cottages system as per the requirement of the clients. The environmental impact is less than half of that incurred by concrete structures and nearly one third less than steel structures. Uses less energy and results in significantly less air, water and solid waste pollution than steel or concrete building materials and making the house energy efficient.
It takes much lesser time for its construction, requires less maintenance and retains humidity making the environment around the house less humid. A heavy timber will stand longer than a comparable steel beam which will melt from the heat before the timber burns through. It can withstand high wind and large earthquakes. Its immense flexibility makes it the best choice for creating customized structural. 
It can be easily redesigned to suit changing needs, whether it be the addition of a new room. It absorbs moisture during high humidity and releases moisture into the air during dry periods. Hence, contribute to better air quality.

Why to go for prefabricated wooden cottages?
Wood itself is a natural thermal insulator due to the millions of tiny air pockets within its cellular structure. The thermal insulating ability of softwood is 10 times that of concrete and masonry, and 400 times that of solid steel. Wood frame construction is the most energy efficient building system, both in terms of operational energy usage and the embodied energy that goes into manufacturing building materials. These cottages use natural and re-useable materials, is quick to set up, cost-effective and aesthetically pleasing. The days of concrete building are towards its ebb, and wooden homes are the future of our generation. These cottages are sustainable, exotic and comfortable where one can dwell his life with full of amenities.

Who goes for these cottages?
They can be an alternative form of housing in the hot and wet tropical part of the country for those who go for sustainable   The idea of moving to the suburbs in a wooden cottage, like farm house and villas, away from the crowd of the cities is an amazing idea itself. People who love the smell of wood and want an exotic lifestyle would prefer to live in these cottages as these cottages are fitted with all the other amenities like modern bathrooms, kitchens and furniture including plumbing and electrical works.

How much does these cottages cost?
Generally, these wooden cottages cost around 1500-3000 INR per square feet depending upon the type of wood and thickness of the wall. Owner can customize the wood type, thickness and size as per his requirement.
 

Effect of mining ban on Construction Industry in Uttrakhand

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There has been an imposition of a complete ban on the mining sector by the state high court of Uttarakhand. Following these chain of events the construction industry has been hit by a major rise in the cost of the different materials that are used for construction. Not only the construction entrepreneurs but also many construction project undertakings of the MDDA are suffering because of the imposed bans. As a major chunk of construction material is bought from the state there is a decline in the profit margin also.

The complete ban on mining activities in the state after the Uttarakhand high court order has hit the construction sector as prices of sand and other materials extracted from river beds have shot up, according to stakeholders in the construction industry. Rates of sand and other materials have increased by up to Rs 12 per quintal after the ban and transportation costs have also gone up. A quintal of sand which was for Rs 70 is now costing Rs 82. Material extracted from rocks was priced at Rs 40 per quintal but now it costs Rs 48. 

As shortage of construction material is expected in the next few days, transportation cost of material that was previously extracted has also soared. A truck which would earlier take Rs 8,400 now takes Rs 9,500. These mere figures are not enough to showcase the problems being faced by the constructors. If the situation continues, prices will rise further. 

Uttarakhand also supplies construction material to UP and other neighboring states so they have been affected too. The situation is likely to worsen and the current stock will also run out soon. This will affect the private as well as public sector construction industry. The shortage of construction material is also likely to hit projects by the Public Works Department (PWD). PWD officials said that construction work on 120 roads that are being built in six districts of Kumaon may be affected. The state government is planning to appeal to the SC to reconsider the ban. 
 

Industrial Development and Economic Growth In Madhya Pradesh

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Madhya Pradesh is an agrarian state. Around 74 per cent of the population of the state is directly or indirectly, dependent on agriculture. It is among the fastest growing states in India. The state is centrally located in India. Major consumer goods multinationals are situated in Madhya Pradesh in order to access major consumer markets and metro urban communities like New Delhi (740 km), Mumbai (780 km), Kolkata (1,350 km) and Chennai (1,435 km) (all distances from Bhopal).

Madhya Pradesh State Industrial Development Corporation Limited (MPSIDC) is the nodal agency for industrial growth in the state. It is the central point to coordinate, activate and ensure implementation of mega infrastructure projects. MPSIDC has identified 19 industrial growth centers to attract medium and large industries and non-resident Indians (NRIs) to the state, and provide various facilities and concessions to them. The state has excellent infrastructure, with 19 industrial development parks, 129 industrial areas, six food parks, eight integrated development centers, three dry parks, one stone park, one IT park, one SEZ and an apparel park at Indore. A gems and jewelry park is being developed in Indore to promote the diamond industry in the state.

The following are some of the major initiatives taken by the government to promote Madhya Pradesh as an investment destination.

  • Under Prime Minister Gramin Sadak Yojana, during 2016-17, construction of more than 2,000 km of roads has been targeted by the state government. For the development of various roads in the state, allocation of US$ 1.12 billion has been proposed by the state government
  • Work on construction of IT parks in 4 major regions of the state, including Indore, Gwalior, Bhopal and Jabalpur, is expected to be initiated during 2016-17. Moreover, electronic manufacturing clusters are also being established in Jabalpur and Bhopal. For these new establishments, Government of Madhya Pradesh allocated an amount of US$ 7.94 million as per the Budget 2016-17.
  • For a structured growth, the government has divided the state into six clusters - Indore, Bhopal, Jabalpur, Gwalior, Rewa and Sagar.
  • MPSIDC has undertaken a US$ 13.3 million project to bring water from Narmada River to Dewas under the BOT scheme. The project would likely resolve the water problems of 460 industries and facilitate further industrialization of the Dewas industrial belt.
  • The state is developing two SEZs at Hargarh and Umariya- Dungariya. Once operational, the Hargarh SEZ will provide infrastructure support to mineral-based industries, while Umariya-Dungariya will cater to the agriculture and food processing industries. 
  • To attract investment into the textile sector, the government has provided an interest subsidy for five years at the rate of five per cent for textile projects and seven per cent for composite textile projects. Furthermore, the government provided 100% assistance in plant and machinery for eight years under Industrial Investment Promotion Assistance Scheme.

Legal Documentation for Leasing a Property

Thumb lease deed of residential

A lease deed is a contract wherein the lessee (tenant) agrees to pay the lessor (landlord) periodic rent for the use of a property owned by lessor.
Though the relationship between the land lord and the tenant is cordial most of the time, it is good to have a written rental agreement in place if the relationship turns sour or becomes fraught with complaints and misunderstandings.

The stipulation are same in the deed irrespective it is for residential use or commercial use.

Essential elements of lease

The essential elements of a lease are as follows
Parties- The parties to a lease are the lessor and the lessee. The lessor is also called the landlord and the lessee the tenant.
Subject matter of lease- The subject matter of lease must be immovable property. The word "immovable property" may not be only house, land but also benefits to arise out of land, right to collect fruit of a garden, right to extract coal or minerals, hats, rights of ferries, fisheries or market dues. The contract for right for grazing is not lease. A mining lease is lease and not a sale of minerals.
Duration of lease- The right to enjoy the property must be transferred for a certain time, express or implied or in perpetuity. The lease should commence either in the present or on some date in future or on the happening of some contingency, which is bound to happen. Though the lease can commence from a past day, but that is for the purpose of computation of lease period, as the interest of the lessee begins from the date of execution. No interest passes to the lessee before execution. In India, the lease may be in perpetuity.
Consideration- The consideration for lease is either premium or rent, which is the price paid or promised in consideration of the demise. The premium is the consideration paid of being let in possession, such as Salami, even if it is to be paid in installments.
Sub-lease- A lessee can transfer the whole or any part of his interest in the property by sub-lease. However, this right is subject to the contract to the contrary and he can be restrained by the contract from transferring his lease by sub-letting. The lessee can create sub-leases for different parts of the demised premises. The sub-lessee gets the rights, subject to the covenants, terms and conditions in the lease deed.

Important clauses required

A lease agreement must mention the following clauses clearly
• Security deposit and monthly rental to be paid
• Penalty for late payment
• Usage charges like electricity, water, cooking gas, telephone, internet and cleaning charges to be borne by tenant as usual
• Any additional charges like maintenance charges, club house fee, power back-up charges, etc. to be borne by landlord or tenant as applicable
• Provision of parking at a designated space
• Inventory of materials being provided in the premises. This includes all electrical fittings, fans, geysers, furniture and fixtures
• Provisions on whitewash, maintenance and repairs
• Prohibition on making any structural changes in the premises and undertaking any construction resulting in permanent structures
• Safety and security norms
• General up-keeping and peaceful possession of the premises without causing any disturbances or nuisances
• Lock-in period, if any
• Provisions regarding keeping pets, especially dogs and cats
• Sub-letting, which is generally prohibited by the landlord
• Notice period for vacating the premises
• Conditions for renewal of the agreement

Registered lease VS Unregistered lease

Registered lease- If a lease deed duration is more than 11 months, it has to be registered under Section 17 of the Registration Act in the sub-registrar office. In the absence of its registration, it's inadmissible in evidence. A deed can be registered within four months. If you rely on unregistered lease deed before the court, you have to pay the 10 times duty and penalty.

If the Agreement is making for above 11 months then it is recommended to make it register as the validity for Notary is for 1 year in case of Rent Agreement.

The notarized rent agreement can be done on 100 Rs stamp paper as well as on 500 rupees stamp paper, but the stamp paper may vary according to the rent which means if the rent is below Rs 15000 then we can use 100 rupees stamp paper and if the rent is above Rs 15000 then we have to use 500 rupees stamp paper.

The fees is required in the following ways-
• For a lease of up to five years, the stamp paper cost is 2% of the total average annual rent of a year. Add a flat fee of Rs100, if a security deposit is part of the agreement. 
• For a lease of more than 5 years but less than 10 years, it is 3% of the value of the average annual rent of a year. 
• For 10 years and more but less than 20 years, it is 6% of the value of average annual rent of a year. The stamp paper can be in the name of the tenant or the landlord.
• In addition, a flat registration charge of Rs1,100 is also to be paid by demand draft (DD).

Unregistered  lease- If it's an unregistered rent agreement for 11 months, it is valid in the eyes of law. A valid evidence, it is permissible to be produced in court.
 If the Agreement is making for 11 months than notarizing it with Notary Public is sufficient and valid. 
The primary purpose of notarization is to prevent fraud, though it is not compulsory but it is advisable.

Documents required for registering the rent agreement

In order to register a lease deed, the landlord is required to present the following documents
• Proof of ownership of property, in original
• Aadhar card
• Another government ID proof: driving license, voter ID card or passport
• 2 passport size photos
The tenant, on the other hand, is needed to present the following documents:
• Government ID proofs mentioning the permanent address. For example, driving license and voter ID card. 
• Aadhar Card
• 2 passport size photographs
 

Impact of Lightning in North-East

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Several fatalities are reported due to lightning deaths from the North-east every year. Two authorities on lightning and the high voltage associated with it, Prof Ravindra Aurora and Dr Chandima Gomes, speaking to The Assam Tribune, agreed that there was an immediate need to make people aware about lightning safety in this region. Many lives could be saved, and electronic materials be protected, if knowledge on lightning protection could be made easily accessible to all.

HAZARDS
Lightning causes hazard such as fire damage in which wood and other flammable materials catch fire easily mainly on the roof of the house as the channel usually has to pass through some of the structural material in the roof before it can reach a more conductive path such as wiring or pipes, power surge damage in which the home's electrical system will experience enough of a surge to cause potentially significant damage to electronics in particular, shock wave damage in which fracture can easily occur in  concrete, brick, cinderblock and stone. Shrapnel is a common secondary damage effect, with objects sometimes found embedded in walls.

REMEDIES
1. UPS units are not suitable as lightning protection devices because they cannot have any effect on catastrophic burst of current from a very close or direct lightning strike so other alternatives can be used.
2. In household surge protection, installation of lightning arrester in electric service panel can prove effective as these devices capture the voltage surges and ‘bleed’ them off to the grounding wire.
3. Lightning protection system should be used that are of three types- 
       • The lightning rod- It is a metallic capture tip placed at the top of a building and is earthed by conductors such as copper and aluminum. They come in different forms such as hollow, solid, pointed, rounded, flat strips or even bristle brush-like.
       • The lightning rod with taut wires- Such wires are stretched above the structure to be protected. They are used to protect structures in military applications, rocket launching areas and protection of high-voltage overhead lines.
       • The lightning conductor with meshed cage (Faraday cage)- Such protection consists of placing numerous down conductors/tapes symmetrically all around the building and is used for highly exposed buildings housing very sensitive installations such as computer rooms.

INITIATIVES TAKEN IN NORTH-EAST REGION
Lightning in North East is highest among the world. Hence initiatives are taken-
• Responses were received from Ikbal Hussain Laskar, United Nations Development Programme, Silchar, Assam, that Morigaon is mainly affected leading to loss of life. So the district administration in consultation with other stakeholders intensified their awareness generation programme which included holding talks for SHG members, distributing IEC material, installing insulators in public institutions, building a public shed in large free space.
• City architects and electrical engineers want Dispur to make installation of lightning conductors mandatory in all residential buildings. 
• Construction and safety norms of buildings in the city are decided by the Guwahati development department through the Guwahati Building Construction (Regulation) Byelaws, 2014. These rules are enforced by the GMDA.
• Workshop have been set up on lightning which would pave the way for setting up a new lightning awareness centre affiliated to TERI at Guwahati.

Smart Material used in construction

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In the field of modern construction concrete, steel, glass and timbers are the most commonly used materials. The smart materials are defined as those materials that can change the properties in response to external conditions. These are also being introduced into civil infrastructure systems, and so are new development in metals with new high strength steel alloys and non corrosive steels that are changing engineering practice.There are many types of smart materials like wood, metals, polymers, ceramics and composites.

Smart materials are the materials that can significantly alter one or more of their inherent properties owing to application of an external stimuli in a controlled fashion. Following are the external stimulus to which the smart materials are sensitive- Temperature, stress, moisture, pH, presence of electric and magnetic fields, etc.

Smartness are generally achieved by the materials depends on the following factors-material composition, special processing, modifying micro structure, etc.

CLASSIFICATION OF SMART MATERIALS

1. Active smart materials
 Possess the capability of modifying their geometric and material properties under the application of electric, therma or magnetic fields, thereby     acquiring an inherent capacity to transduce energy. Example: Piezo-electric materials, magnetosensitive materials, etc. Can be used as force     transducers and actuator.

2. Passive smart materials
 Lack of inherent capability to transduce energy. Example: fibre optic cable. Can act as sensors not as actuators or transducers.

Applications
1. Repairing and strengthening of concrete structures.
2. Smart prestressing with shape memory alloy-it confirms ability of shape memory wires to transfer stresses to concrete beam.
3. Used to monitor the integrity of the bridges, dams offshore oil-drilling towers where fibre optic sensors embedded in the structures are utilized to identify the trouble areas.

Future Scope
1. Materials which can restrain the propogation of cracks by automatically producing compressive stresses around them.
2. Materials possessing self repairing properties which can heal damages in due coarse of time.
3. Material which can discriminate whether the loading is static or shock and can generate large force against shock stresses.
 

Concept of uPVC Doors and Windows

Thumb casement doors

WHAT ARE UPVC DOORS AND WINDOWS?
UPVC doors and windows (un-plasticized polyvinyl chloride polymer). The material is long lasting and strong though light weight plastic is used for its construction. These are long lasting and appealing doors for a brand new home interior. UPVC doors and windows are available in various colors and designs.

How UPVC doors and windows does made?
These are made up thin and large strips of polyvinyl chloride which are trimmed and welded for a perfect door and window shape using heated machines.For the manufacture of high-quality UPVC doors and windows, special UV and heat stabilizers are added. With the help of extrusion process UPVC window frames and doors are produced that deliver energy efficiency, superior performance, excellent insulation and environmental sustainability.

Why to choose UPVC doors and windows?
UPVC doors and windows offer high-levels of safety and help to optimize day lighting, energy conservation, environment friendly, dust and water proofinsulation, and noise control. As a result of these benefits over the traditional doors and windows, availability in different styles and designs, there is great demand for the UPVC windows and doors. These affordable windows and doors have tremendously increased consumer aspirations. Manufacturers provide premium quality products to help the clients who desire for a better lifestyle.
These are highly durable, easy to maintain, anti- corrosive, anti-crowbar,ensures immense strength and durability.


DIFFERENT VARIANTS OF UPVC DOORS AND WINDOWS IN THE MARKET

These are available in ample of styles and designs with functionality. They add a glamorous touch to any property. A well-designed window not only increases the aesthetic appeal but also brightens the interiors. UPVC windows are a great choice as they are easy to clean and maintain. Also, UPVC windows help in better ventilation, insulation and energy conservation. Some of the popular UPVC windows and doors designs and styles are:

Sliding (can add mosquito mesh here)- Easy to operate and versatile in style.
Fixed- These are stationary, non-opening and are deliberated to allow light into the room and to offer unobstructed view of outside.
Swing- It offers maximum air flow in the room and impart a charm to any property. Also, they have numerous security features and locks at various points.
Tilted- Ideal for dual functioning, they bring in more sunlight and enables safe and controlled ventilation.


Glass- It is formed by fusing sand, sodium carbonate and calcium carbonate under extreme heat. It is usually transparent in nature. Choice of glass can really impact the performance of doors and windows by affecting energy savings, aesthetics, view, privacy and security.

TYPES OF GLASS
The type of glass used in windows and doors is Toughened glass that has been made stronger using chemical or thermaltreatments so that it will not break easily. These are further classified.

Plain- Unlike regular glasses which breaks into thousands of shards. 
This glass breaks into small pieces without sharp edges hence proved to be safe.

Frosted glass- It prevents dust from sticking onto its surface.
It is use in the bathroom, glass partitions and walls.
It is slightly opaque thus maintains privacy

Tinted glass- It provides additional shading by reducing the brightness of sunlight.
It is available in several colors like grey, black, blue, bronze etc.

Stained glass- It is a form of colored glass which lets in the right amount of sunlight while ensuring the privacy.
It is used in churches, museums etc.

High security-Laminated glass- It is made up by bonding two or more sheets of glass together. 
It provides best protection, withstands heavy explosions and prevents burglars.
 
HOW DOES SINGLE GLAZED DIFFERENT FROM DOUBLE GLAZED?
The glass you use in your home is not a simple task to choose when it comes to energy efficiency. If you are deciding between single glazed and double glazed windows, it’s important to know the basic differences and which option is better for your home.
    
Single glazing contains only one glass layer whereas Double glazing contains two layers of glass with a layer of inert gas sealed hence the unit becomes airtight. Single glazed is cost efficient and reduces 10-15 DB noise. The only thing separating your home from the outside environment, is that pane of glass. Typical window glass ranges from 3mm to 10mm, which doesn’t provide adequate insulation. A single glazed window can be up to 20 times less efficient than an insulated wall when it comes to energy loss or storage.

Double glazed improves sound insulation up to 45 DB. Its airtight construction makes it a thermal insulator and tougher than single glazed. With double glazing, heat loss can be reduced by half in optimal conditions. When combined with insulated curtains covering the windows, the heat loss becomes even less.It consists of two layers ofglasses sandwiched with alayer of gas in between. It reflects heat in summers and retains in winters hence make rooms comfortable andenergy efficient.

How much does UPVC costs?
Generally, UPVC single glazed costINR (450-650) per sq. ft. and double glazed cost INR (650-800) per sq. ft.When compared to the other available materials for building doors and windows, the cost of UPVC is low. Also, UPVC windows and doors are very cost-effective as not only they are cheap but also long lasting.
If you want to add mesh then you have to pay INR 50/sq. ft. more and for grills in SS, INR(350-500) per sq. ft.

Use of Ferrocement for construction of Building and Structure

Thumb ferro cement

What is Ferrocement?
Ferro Cement or Ferroconcrete is a system of reinforcement mortar or plaster applies over meshes wire. Applications of ferrocement in construction is vast due to its low self-weight, lack of skilled workers required, no need of framework etc.
These are highly versatile form of reinforced concrete. It is a type of thin reinforced concrete construction in which large amount of small diameter wire meshes uniformly throughout the cross section. Mesh may be metal or suitable material. Instead of concrete, Portland cement mortar is used in this. Its strength mainly depends upon two factors: quality of sand/cement mortar mix and quantity of reinforcing materials used.

Why Ferrocement?

  • Fabricated into desire shape
  • Low weight and long time
  • Better resistance against earthquake
  • High resistance to cracking
  • Good Fire Resistance
  • Low maintanance cost
  • Ability to undergo large defeltion

Ferrocement application:

  • Rafters & Purlin
  • Building | Ducts
  • RCC Structures
  • Water storage tank
  • Foot bridges
  • Manhole covers
  • Kitchen cabinet
  • Water proofing
  • Housing
  • Bus shelter
  • Swimming Pool lining

Process of Ferrocement Construction

1.    Fabricating the skeletal frame
2.    Applying rods and wire meshes
3.    Plastering
4.    Curing

Why to go for ferrocement structures?

The economic advantage of ferro concrete structures is that they are stronger and more durable than some traditional building methods. Depending on the quality of construction and the climate of its location, houses may pay for themselves with almost zero maintenance and lower insurance requirements. Water tanks could pay for themselves by not needing periodic replacement, if properly constructed of reinforced concrete.
Ferro concrete structures can be built quickly, which can have economic advantages. In inclement weather conditions, it has the ability to quickly erect and enclose the building allows workers to shelter within and continue interior finishing. These are more economic because of there variety of applications, cost of labour, tradition of construction procedure and doesn`t need heavy plant or machinery. Moreover, material cost is also very low.


Advantages of Ferrocement
The advantages of ferrocement is various like it saves up to 20% of materials and its cost. It leads to ease of handling and fast work process due to its pre-casting and easy to joint, cutting and drilling. 
They are easy to joint, cutting and drilling. It also has low maintenance, more fire resistive because of its more compactness. 
Ferrocement is a good material for elevation treatment. Since it is constructed in this sections, it contributes negligible dead weight, and at the same time it is crack resistant, water proof and strong.
Ferrocement is a very good fire resistant material having capacity to resist fire up to 750°C for long period of 48 hours and even more. Ferrocement can be modified to resist even high temperatures, say 1200°C to 1500°C. Ferrocement building are better pollution and fire resistant as compared to RCC. Therefore, ferrocement building are preferable to RCC for functional VIP and strategic buildings.
 

Costing of Ferrocement Structures
The average costing of ferrocement structures is ranging from 70-100 INR per square feet that may vary according to desired structures to be build. 

  

RERA makes the home buying easy

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The experience of purchasing home in India has been very tedious and cumbersome for most of the buyers. Unlike the Stock market which has a regulator known as SEBI, Real Estate market has none. This led to open handed builders or promoters who exploited the buyers in many ways. RERA 2016, comes with a mission to safeguard the home buyers and bring transparency in this sector.

The Inception of RERA era

RERA which stands for Real Estate Regulation & Development Act came into full force on 1 May 2017 after a long wait. Real Estate market has largely been an unregulated sector. Due to the frauds and deceptions of the builders to the gullible buyers, this sector had become infamous.
The sentiments of the house-buyers were hurt. They had to bear huge losses of loan EMIs and rents without having full or no possession of the property. If they had any complaints they had to wait for 6-7 years for a court to provide them justice. With RERA in full force now, consumers can have their voices heard at the state tribunal with the speedy dispute redressal.

What has changed?

RERA is very systematic and well-organized combinations of laws and regulations which aim to make buyers the kings and promote the real estate sector.

Consumer-centric sector

RERA checks on the quality of construction in a project. If consumer complaints about poor quality or damage within 5 years of possession then the developer will be responsible to fix it within a month.
Buyers should ask for the Completion and Occupancy certificates from the developers. They are very important as they ensure that the apartment is under the living condition or not. They should not occupy the apartment before these certificates are handed over to them. However, they are required to take the physical possession of the apartment within a period of 2 months of allotment of Occupancy certificate.  

Modular kitchens myths resolved

Thumb modular kitchen

INTRODUCTION

A modular kitchen is a term used for the modern kitchen furniture layout consisting of modules as in units made of diversified materials with bold accessories inside, which can facilitate the effective uses of the spaces in the kitchen, The units or cabinets on the walls are called “wall units”. It is made up of wooden cabinets, the countertops, other accessories, electric or domestic gadgets like the chimney the hob, settled in oven or could be the adjoining sink and a dry area, fridge or other gadgets.

Common Myths Resolved

  1. They are not factory made, but custom wood partitions designed using engineer's wood to accommodate standard size equipment and wire trays that come in size of 12, 18, 24, 32 bay widths.
  2. It is not expensive exception for any addition of trays and equipments 
  3. Repair is not difficult, skilled craftsmen are easily available

PRICING

Normal Pricing for all types of modular kitchen starts from Rs.2 lakhs and it goes on as per the respective requirements of the customers till Rs. 6 to 7 lakhs.

Material Used for Boxes

Commercial Plywood- This is engineered wood made from sheets of veneer pressed with resins. Though on the slightly expensive side. It has variants like Boiling Water-Resistant Ply and Moisture Resistant  Ply which work well in kitchens due to their resistance to water. Plywood sheets range in thickness from. 06 in (1.6 mm) to 3.0 in (76 mm). The most common thicknesses are in the 0.25 in (6.4 mm) to 0.75 in (19.0 mm) range. The most common size for plywood sheets used in building construction is 4 ft (1.2 m) wide by 8 ft (2.4 m) long. It is available in brand like century ply, green ply, Bhutan tuff. It is only available in post laminated form.

Marine Plywood- Marine Plywood is of a superior quality compared to Commercial ply and it is also costs a lot more. It is not usually used for indoor applications such as for making furniture. It is rather used for applications such as for boat building and other industrial uses where the plywood is bound to get a prolonged exposure to water. It is available in brand like century ply, green ply, Bhutan tuff etc.

Moisture Resistent Plywood- It is an Interior grade plywood, meaning its for indoor use.  It is not waterproof. Though the word 'Moisture Resistant' (MR) can confuse many people into thinking that its waterproof, that is not the case. Being 'moisture resistant' is not the same as being 'water resistant'. While it is true that moisture resistant plywood can withstand some amount of moisture and humidity, it cannot be said to be waterproof. On the other hand, the exterior BWR grade plywood is waterproof. It is available in brand like century ply, green ply, Bhutan tuff etc.

Wood Plastic Composite- WPC is a highly durable and secure material used for construction purposes. It is a blend of wood fibre/ wood flour and thermoplastics. The WPC boards are also prepared from inorganic fillers and plastic composites. It is water as well as fire resistant and also termite proof. It is available in brand like century ply, green ply, Bhutan tuff etc.

Medium Density Fibreboard- MDF has become a generic name for any dry process fibre board. The density of the board, when evaluated in relation to the density of the fibre that goes into making the panel, is important. It is available in non-laminated as well as laminated form. It brands includes century plywood, Greenply plywood, Bhutan Tuff. It is pre laminated readily available in the market

LAMINATION

It consists of thin layers of wood bonded together; similarly, laminated fabric consists of two or more layers of cloth joined together with an adhesive, or a layer of fabric bonded to a plastic sheet. It is also available of brands like century ply, green ply, Bhutan tuff. It is popularly known as sunmica.

Post Lamination- Initially, laminate is made through fusing layers of both core and decorative paper into one single sheet. This sheet is then soaked with resins and pressed together using high levels of heat.  It is most commonly used in cabinetry and serves as an effective method of wrapping edges on laminate countertops.Types of post lamination-

  1. Silk Lamination- Silk lamination follows the same principals as traditional lamination by coating ordinary paper with a layer of plastic in order to make it stronger, more desirable and more resilient. However, what differentiates the two is that silk lamination has a softer exterior and a superior quality due to the strength of the bond created between the paper and the plastic coating of the lamination. It gives a smooth finishing and luxurious look.
  2. Matt Lamination- Matt lamination gives an elegant and sophisticated finish, which is why it is a common choice for many. Compared to other glosses, a matt laminate is more of a ‘natural’ look. Unlike gloss lamination, on darker colours. The texture of a matt laminate is velvety.
  3. Glass Lamination- Glass laminates are often a popular choice, and it’s not difficult to see why. Writing and pictures often appear more crisp and sharper, whilst also having more contrast. Glass lamination also is a durable choice  as it repels dirt, dust and fingerprints with ease. If the laminate does come in contact with dirt, it is easily wiped clean due to its glossy and shiny texture
  4. Acrylic Lamination- Acrylic is a non-toxic finish that gives a perfectly smooth texture and a hig h-gloss appearance to kitchen cabinets. Available in a wide range of colours, this finish gives a resplendent, mirror-like semblance to your cooking space.

Pre-Lamination- Pre-laminated Particle board, also known as chipboard, is an engineered wood product manufactured from wood chips, sawmillshavings, or even sawdust, and a synthetic resin or other suitable binder, which is pressed and extruded.   

DESIGNS OF MODULAR KITCHEN

  1. L-Shaped Modular Kitchen- We begin with the L-shaped layout with your cooking space and fridge and sink forming a decent triangle on one side and the cabinet and drawers decked up on nearby walls and from the floor upwards. This is good for small homes; it utilizes space more wonderfully and you can even fit in a small dining table.
  2. U-Shaped Kitchen- The u- shaped layout can come next. In this you have loads of space for cooking if you need it. It also provides more storage space and an optimum work triangle. It is great for family homes with more than one cook sometimes.
  3. Parallel-Shaped Modular Kitchen- Here two opposing walls have all the cooking space and the fridge and sink in a high and ample space in the middle. The drawers and cabinets can be accommodated on either or both walls. With all your gadgets and cooking range in place. It is suited to more types of homes. You could use one side for “wet” work and the other side for “dry” work. Enough space is there for your appliances with a good amount of storage. It provides ample room for movement. For a small kitchen this kind of layout could be avoided as the walking in between space could be too narrow for comfort.
  4. Island Modular Kitchen- The island version is another hot hit. You can couple this with a straight or L-Shaped layout preferably for a not so small kitchen. You can put a dining table there with the sink in the middle of the kitchen somewhere. It gives you extra working space and it can be used as a dining table too. You can put in another stove top here or use it for your mixer-grinder gadget or an oven if you want. It could even be used for a greater storage space. It is available for brand like Godrez Interio, Space wood Furnitures, etc. 
  5. Straight Layout Modular Kitchen- The layout does not follow the triangle principle with the fridge on one end of the wall you are moving on to the sink at the other end and your cooking space is in the middle. All are assorted on one straight wall; this is good for small studio apartments with a Shrink minimal kitchen space and there provides maximum efficiency.It can also be used for a big kitchen if you require the rest of the space of the kitchen for maximum storage or walking space or an island feature.

  6. Peninsular Modular Kitchen- Next in line comes the peninsular kitchen. It has a free-standing space like the island. Its like a rectangle with an opening on one side. You get an extra working space on that same side. A massive triangle is its main stay. It is good for small kitchens. It is as good as an island but uses less floor space. The boundaries are well defined, cooking spaces are separated, gives you extra dining space and loads and loads of storage possibility.

Advantages

  • Modular kitchen gives you way more storage area than your regularly designed kitchen, more storage means more food, right?
  • It has a Sleek, clean and trendy design, you can totally own the kitchen you’ve always dreamt of having while watching your favourite cookery shows. The use of straight line cuts gives a minimalistic yet elegant look.
  • Convenience of working, since you have a well compartmentalised storage space and designed space for cooking washing storage and electrical appliances working is a lot easier.
  • You get to choose from an overabundance range of finishes, colours, patterns to make your modular kitchen gel with your existing interior theme.
  • Since the cabinets are pre-fabricated, construction is quick and chances of errors are considerably reduced, moreover if required individual components of the kitchen can be replaced hence making repair work way easier.
  • Modular kitchen can be cleaned and maintained comfortably and require less effort.

Disadvantages

  • Initial installation cost of modular kitchen is higher as compared to your ordinary kitchen.
  • Pre-fabricated cabinets need technical assistance while installation and repair.
  • Even though individual modules can be changed and repaired, changing the colour theme would be heavy on pocket.
  • If an existing kitchen needs to be fitted with modular kitchen, the civil works are usually done by a third part like dado work and tile work etc.

Setting and Hardening Time of Cement

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What is Setting Time?
This is the term used to describe the stiffening of cement paste. Broadly speaking, setting refers to a change from a fluid to a rigid state. Setting is mainly caused by selective hydration of C3A and C3S and is accompanied by temperature rises in the cement paste; initial set responds to the rapid rise and final set responds to the peak temperature. Initial and final sets should be distinguished from false set which sometimes occurs within a few minutes of mixing with water. No heat is evolved in a false set and the concrete can be remixed without adding the water. Flash set is characterized by the liberation of heat.

Some factors which effect the settling time and hardening time of cement.

The mixing amount of gypsum.
Gypsum is called retarding agent of cement that is used for regulating the settling time of cement and is absolutely necessary component. By mixing with water it releases heat. The retardation mechanism of gypsum is: Gypsum reacts with C3A to generate when cement is hydrated.

The impact of cement fineness.
The size of cement particles affects settling the hydration and hardening, strength and heat of hydration.

The impact of curing age.
Hydration and hardening are ongoing process in a period that is long. With the increase of hydrating degree of various clinker materials and will grow porosities which enable the strength to rise with all increase of age.

The impact of admixture.
The accelerator agents can accelerate the hydration and also the hardening and hydration of cement and improve its strength.

Prefabricated Steel Structures in Residential Buildings using LGSF

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Applications of Prefabricated Steel Structures in Residential Buildings
Steel structure is a metal structure which is made of structural steel Supplier. Prefabrication is the practice of assembling components of a structure in a factory or other manufacturing site where the structure is to be located. Structural steel has multiple applications. It is used in designing and building industrial spaces as well as in residential buildings. Structural steel has a high strength to weight ratio which makes it ideal to use in the construction of large structures such as buildings, warehouses, bridges, factories etc.
Steel buildings are resistant to natural and man-made wear. They provide high safety. They withstand termites, fire, rust and rot. Not only structural steel is a stronger material but it also has a much higher strength to weight ratio than other materials. Steel can be used for everything from garden sheds to skyscrapers, the latter of which is not possible with any other construction material.

What is the technology that is being used in residential buildings?
LGSF (Light Gauge Steel Framing) – it is a modern technology for design and construction of prefabricated buildings and structures on the basis of high-quality galvanized steel frame profiles, designed for the construction of load-bearing wall and roofing frames, as well as construction of inter-room walls and floor slabs. LGSF system is highly luxurious as it not only enables a healthy and comforting living space but the space utility is maximum in this form of building system. The usage of light gauge steel structures lessens on field works, decreases material wastage and enhances the quality of the structure.
The steel sections used here are called cold formed sections, meaning that the sections are formed, or given shape at room temperature. This is in contrast to thicker hot rolled sections, which are shaped while the steel is molten hot. Cold formed steel is shaped by guiding thin sheets of steel through a series of rollers, each roller changing the shape very slightly, with the net result of converting a flat sheet of steel into a C or S-shaped section.

How LGSF is different from traditional hot rolled steel?
The biggest advantage is the ability to reduce construction times by a third. This reduction in time incurs benefits such as a reduction of cost and more timely deliveries of projects. This technology saves on foundation cost as less material is required for construction. Locations which are affected by bad weather and difficult terrain can rely on this technology as unlike concrete, steel is less affected by bad weather. LGSF is perhaps the best method for seismic stability. These structures perform better in seismic conditions due to its relative strength and much lighter overall building structure weight making buildings not only last longer but also more prone to natural disasters. The high resistance, flexibility, and lightness of steel make it ideally the most earthquake resistant material. The light material can resist impact, without breaking apart. Since on average steel buildings are about 5 times lighter than their concrete counterparts, the earthquake force imposed on the buildings too is about 5 times lesser.

Why to go for prefabricated steel structures?
This structure is constructed under the supervision of skilled, professional production and engineering team and the material that is being used is pre-engineered, just need to assemble it at the required site. Thus, it saves a lot of time. It just takes a few weeks to construct. An owner can customize each structure as per his requirements. Offered steel structure is built over a structural concept of primary members, secondary members, and the cover sheeting connected to each other.

SUSTAINABLE AND GREEN CONSTRUCTION
Steel is 100% recyclable| 70% of steel used in LGSF is secured from recycled sources| Lower energy required to erect the modular structures| Highly advanced insulation system reduces energy consumption| Much lower transportation requirements.


Unique features offered are
As it is prefabricated, it can be moved at any time and any place and takes less time to install. It is highly durable and can withstand a certain amount of external pressure. It is earthquake resistant, eco-friendly and recyclable. Steel structures have a good load carrying capacity. These can be easily assembled, disassembled and replaced. It can be constructed off site by professional steel fabricators and then assembled on site. Moreover, its scrap value is high.  A well-built steel structure can last up to 30 years if maintained well.

What precautions to take with steel structures?
Structures that are exposed to harsh climatic conditions like marine projects require corrosion resistant alloys. It is required to check whether the structure need to be treated against corrosion with paint or other products. Moreover, though steel doesn’t easily catch fire but other materials within the building may get the fire thus, to prevent steel from fire, it is advisable to insulate steel used in the structures against heat damage.

How much steel structures cost?
Steel structure proves to be affordable in terms of long period as it is highly durable and long lasting. It generally costs in the range of 200-300 INR per square feet.
 

Water Storage and Distribution System in Buildings

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Water storage and distribution is a provision to store and deliver water to the consumer with appropriate quality, quantity and pressure by public utilities, commercial organizations, community, endeavors or by individuals, usually by a system of pumps and pipes.

Storage of Water in Buildings- 
Storage tanks are an integral part of an Indirect Water Supply System.Storage of water in premises is required because water supply from Municipal Corporation is not available round the clock. Storage also helps us for fire demand and to provide smooth water supply in the building.
There are different types of storage tanks in the Buildings.

1- Elevated storage tank

2- Roof Top storage tank

3- Underground storage tank

ELEVATED STORAGE TANK-

When the water supply is available at sufficient pressure as to reach the water at the highest floor the overhead tank is used. In India most of the water supplies are limited to specific time so it is very necessary to use elevated tanks to meet the requirement of flushing of toilets. Many of the municipal corporation has made elevated tanks mandatory.

ROOF TOP STORAGE TANK-

Plastic potable water tanks are made with FDA approved resins for safe drinking water storage. For rainwater collection, storage, and reuse, the rooftop plastic tank is a great option. These poly plastic tanks offers several advantages that help to equip the unit for use with water materials.

UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK-

Underground storage tanks are used in those places where the pressure of main supply is not enough to reach overhead tank. In this case water is stored in underground tanks and then send to overhead tanks by installing pumps.

Requirements for water storage tanks-

1- Tank should be water-tight. Materials used in tanks should be no corrosive and non-toxic. Sufficient number of manholes should be provided for easy  access during maintenance and cleaning purposes.

2- Air pipe or ventilation pipe should also be provided in water tanks so that no unwanted pressure is generated in it.

3- Tank should have an overflow pipe so that to warn the overflow of water.

Udaipur as a smart city

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Called as 'Venice of East' Situated in north-eastern part of Girwa Tehsil of Udaipur district, Udaipur is historically and geographically the heart of erstwhile Mewar State. Located almost in the middle on stretch of Delhi- Mumbai National Highway (NH8). Udaipur is set amidst the Aravalli Ranges of Rajasthan, India. Known for its picturesque lakes, Udaipur also called 'the city of lakes'. The elevated hills and the beautiful lakes make a picture-perfect backdrop to the Udaipur city . 
 
Work to make lake city a smart city has been started from June 25th  2016 . Udaipur was lauded for the efforts made so far on the planning front and the presented projects were given a goahead. Plans for the initial set of developmental activities are to be done such as  setting up an Open Gymnasium at Gulab Bagh, Smart Class room in 4 schools in walled city, heritage conservation and taking up the sewerage project in the first phase. The plans were given an immediate go ahead by Chief Secretary. 
 
While work on Open Gym and Heritage Conservation have been kicked off , technical bids have already been invited and opened for tenders for carrying out sewerage project. Financial bids for sewerage project were opened , post which work will commence. 
  
Some of the projects done and undergoing
1. Development of Open Air Gymnasium at Gulab Garden 
2. Conservation & Development Works of Heritage façade, Lighting & Signage’s for Historic Bazaars in the Walled City, Udaipur under package for Udaipur Smart City Project Phase-I 
3. Setting up Smart Class Rooms in Government Schools of walled City Area Udaipur 
4. Installation of Solar roof top in government buildings in the ABD (walled city) area 
5. Construction of Control and Command center Building 
6. Parking lot development work at PWD Garage near Gulab Bag, Udaipur 
7. Installation of Automated Sanitary Vending Machine at Important places 
8. Progress under SB

Sludge as a construction material

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Sludge refers to the residual, semi-solid material left from industrial wastewater, or sewage treatment processes. It is generated during the treatment process consisting of coagulation - by addition of Aluminium/iron salts,flocculation and liquid/solid separation.
The sewage treatment plants generate large amounts of sludge containing heavy metals and inorganic salts to the environment and classified as hazardous waste (Management and Handling Rules of our country). The amended rule of January 2000 also classifies the sludge as Hazardous.The dewatered sludge in the effluent treatment plants is currently stored in the treatment unit premises which further creates leachate with toxic metals and organic impurities and cause pollution of ground water and land. It is very essential to manage the sludge generated from the treatment. Effective management of the sludge is a challenging problem.

Indian construction industries are running short of construction materials.There is an urgent need for the identification of new construction materials in India. The depleting natural resources are demanding for the new building materials. In fact, only small percentage of architects is actually involved in research and development of alternative technology and building materials today. Sludge that is retained due to the solids separation in the treatment process create lot of environmental problems due to lack of disposal methods.The disposal of sewage sludge for modern municipalities represents an ever- increasingly difficult problem. With the increase in the industrial activities, the amount of wastes generated will increase manifold.

In Tirupur region alone, around 200 tonnes of sludge is produced every day. The practicing method of disposal of sludge in the Tirupur region is the Land filling method. Also the available capacity of sanitary land fills for sludge disposal is insufficient because of increasing amount of wastes with the progress of social economy and difficulties to secure and construct new dump yards. Due to lack of disposal methods and yards, this sludge is causing lot of environmental problems.The amount of generated sludge increases year by year in proportion to growing population rate. Thus scientists, technologists, environmentalist and organizations like National Council for cement and Building materials (NCB) have to play their due role in managing such waste for the good of the society.
 
So nowadays as a result of development the increasing demand for construction materials has called for an alternative way to develop construction materials from different sources including sewage sludge. Study reveals the use of sewage sludge ash for the building materials manufacturing, such as produce bricks and tiles, as a raw material for cement production, as aggregates for concrete and mortar,as a component of the synthesis  of lightweight materials and as substitute for sand or cement in cement stabilized bases,subbases and embankments in road constructions.
 
The textile ETP sludge can be mixed with the plain cement concrete specimens. This may be one of the ways for safe disposal of sludge. The sludge mixed building specimens like mortar bricks and hollow blocks can be used in construction of partition walls and compound walls. The textile ETP sludge mixed pavement blocks can be used in footpaths where the expected load is less. These methods of using sludge in building materials will not only be a new building material but also reduces the environmental degradation due to improper disposal of sludge.

Exoskeleton in Construction

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An exoskeleton is an external skeleton that supports and protects an animal’s body, in contrast to the internal skeleton(endoskeleton) of, for example, a human. 

Wearable exoskeleton devices can reduce some of the mechanical stress of manual labor. These wearable machines can be powered by electricity or by human motion, and they can be as a space suit or as small as a glove. They are used to amplify or transform worker movements, improve biomechanics and efficiency, and are increasingly prevalent in the public and private sectors.

Construction is a physically demanding, labor-intensive industry with heavy manual material handling and awkward work postures. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a leading cause of injury among construction workers, with over-exertion in lifting causing over one- third of these injuries. The rate of work- related musculoskeletal disorders in construction is 16% higher than in all industries combined. Since back injuries are the most prevalent work- related musculoskeletal disorders in construction, and shoulder and other joint injuries are also major causes of injury, exoskeletons present an attractive possibility.

In a study of forward bend lifting using an exoskeleton designed to decrease load to the spine and improve posture, researchers found that exoskeleton decrease total work, fatigue and load while improving posture. In addition to decreasing load on the spine, exoskeletons have been shown to decrease shoulder discomfort while increasing productivity and work quality among painters and welders. It can also help in preventing labor absenteeism due to sickness caused by the tedious work.

Exoskeletons have the potential to enhance worker productivity, provide assistance to aging workers and decrease the risk of musculoskeletal disorders.The National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) has examined the need for standards and test methods related to the use of exoskeletons. Exoskeletons have a huge application in the construction industry and can prove to be quite beneficial in the long run. 
 

Do You know Precast Concrete reduce construction time?

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What is Precast Concrete?

Precast is a form of concrete which is prepared, cast and cured off shore, either at building site or at factory and is then liftedto a final resting place and fixed securely. Precast concrete elements can be joined to other elements to form a complete structure. After manufacturing at off-site plants they are delivered to the construction site to be placed. It provides increased stability and improved sound insulation, as well as greater protection from potential hazards such as fires.
Precast concrete panels also provide energy-saving advantages. For designers, insulated panels provide tremendous flexibility. The availability of numerous finishes, textures, shapes, and colours offer an abundance of creative options to meet virtually any design requirement.

Why Pre Cast Concrete?

Precast concrete are versatility, sustainability, strength, durability and lower lifetime costs.

Where can we use precast concrete?
The structural components where we can use precast concrete panels are:

  • Wall panels
  • Beams
  • Columns
  • Floors
  • Staircases
  • Pipes
  • Tunnel
  • Girders
  • Foundation
  • Highway Barriers and so on.


Advantages of using precast concrete

  • It is manufactured in a controlled environment with greater accuracy and better quality control.
  • Reusable factory moulds are used so as to make the process economical to produce repetitive units.
  • Precast concrete is very durable. There is generally less waste. 
  • On-site assembly can be very fast and is generally weather independent, reducing site delays and ensuring the construction programme can be maintained.
  • There are fewer local environmental impacts such as dust and noise pollution.

Of the many advantages of using structural and architectural precast concrete panels for a new structure- Durability and Low Maintenance are two great reasons to consider precast.
Precast concrete offers superior weathering and corrosion resistant qualities. The high density, prestressing and post tensioning make these elements air and water tight with fewer joints, thus offering excellent protection from climatic conditions. Which reduces maintenance of panels as it offers a smooth, dense, and clean surface that minimizes the collection of dirt and bacteria.


Why to opt precast concrete panels?
Precast concrete panels provide ample of benefits like:

  • Fast Construction
  • Versatility
  • Labour Strength
  • Full Concrete Strength
  • Easily Assembled
  • Economic Production
  • Availability of Standardised Section
  • Smooth Surface Finishes

Pre casting can be done at a casting yard, in or near the site, or in a factory. A key aspect of determining whether to use site or factory pre casting are the transport costs. Factory work offers superior quality for obvious reasons, so if there is a factory close to the site.

Process: Connecting of Precast Concrete Panels
Precast concrete components can be connected in a number of ways:
1. They can be bolted together. In order to do this, steel connectors are embedded in the concrete at the time of casting. 
2. They can be grouted or concreted together. In this method, loops of steel reinforcement are left protruding out of the precast concrete members. Two members are placed in position, and reinforcement is threaded between the loops. Fresh concrete is then poured around this reinforcement, in a space left for this purpose.

How much does it costs?
The costing of precast concrete panels ranges from INR 50-100 per square feet. Pre Castconcrete slab can be of range INR 500-600 (size 300-1000mm). These may varies due to its type of panel and required strength.  


 

Seepage Problems in House?

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It is a very common problem which majority of Indian Households. It causes damages like water marks, blisters and bubbled paint work on the walls and ceiling of the room or it causes water to trip from the walls and ceiling.

Main Reasons for seepage in house
• Due to Internal Plumbing
       Cracks pipes or sanitary fitments in home
       Leakage in underground water supply pipes
       A leakage in the neighbourhood property’s internal plumbing
• Rain water accumulation due to poor vent on roof
• Water tank leakage
• Poor waterproofing at the time of construction
• Presence of Natural underground water (particularly after period of heavy rainfall) or water table

How to identify Cause and its Solution?

1) Rising damp
   Rising damp affects the lower region of walls because of rising ground water. This causes white deposit and peeling of the paint.
   Solution:-
   -Water repellent chemical formulation in wall
   -Pore Blocking salt mixture

2) Seepage on walls at adjoining bathroom or kitchen
   Walls on the other side of bathroom or kitchen walls get damp because of either leaking pipes or seepage through tile grout.
   Solution:- 
   -Waterproofing Cracks & Grout in Bathroom or Kitchen

3) Seepage from exterior walls
 
 Defects and cracks in the exterior walls causes water seepage to the interior walls.
   Solution:-
   -Repairing & waterproofing wall
   -Place a damp proof layer in wall
   -Replaster affected area with waterproof plaster or cement mixture in wall

4) Seepage on ceiling due to leakage from terrace
   Improper waterproofing of the terrace and crack in  water storage tank can lead to water seepage on the roof especially around the upper corners of the room.
   Solution:-
   -Roof waterfroofing 
   -Proper waterproofing of water Tank
   -Filling cracks of water Tank

5) Dampness Due to Seepage From Bathroom on the Floor Above
   Dampness in the interior walls and ceiling can also arise because of leakages from the kitchen or bathroom of the apartment above.
   Solution:-
   -Waterproofing Solution for Kitchen or Bathroom
   -Treatment of water supply leaks
   -Treatment of drain pipe leaks

Prefabrication Building Technology in Tamil Nadu

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Prefabrication is the practice of assembling components of a structure in a factory or other manufacturing site, and transporting complete assemblies or sub-assemblies to the construction site where the structure is to be located. The term is used to distinguish this process from the more conventional construction practice of transporting the basic materials to the construction site where all assembly is carried out.

The advantages of this technology is mainly focused on speedy construction (Reduced Time) and others being reduced costs, Zero wastes (Material saving) and Energy efficiency. The main disadvantages is transportation and others being limited designs, reduced resale value and requirement of precision in measurement and handling(skilled labour). The advantages definitely overshadow the disadvantages with regards to this technology and shows a great sign for the upcoming infrastructure industry.

This technology has been in practice in the country and the state popularly in terms of steel construction and also with polymerized wall panels which have contributed significantly to the construction of Industries, Factories, Warehouses, Cabins and public toilets. But, in terms of construction of Prefabricated concrete structures, it has been only used for a few projects (a very few companies in the state such as ‘Pressmach Infrastructure Pvt. Ltd.’ and ‘Shadow Bison Prefab Houses’ specialize in this field) and so will take time to gain some popularity among the people as we associate security with the conventional technology and will find it hard to readily accept a new technology all of a sudden.

In 2013, Tamil Nadu Housing Board(TNHB) and Tamil Nadu Slum Clearance board(TNSCB) had decided to use this technology to build high rise apartment complexes to help reduce cost and time. The TNHB had proposed construction of 1500flats in Sholinganallur and TNSCB had proposed construction of 920houses in Vyasarpadi on a pilot basis. This clearly shows the usefulness of such technology in the area of Affordable housing.

This is an emerging technology in the construction field in the country as well as in the state which has all the characteristics to boom in the years to come.

Waste Reduction and Management in Construction

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Construction & Demolition of infrastructures engenders huge piles of wastes. These wastes include woods, bricks, tiles, masonry etc. While traveling down the road, it is common to find huge piles of these junks dumped mid-way which might delay you to your destination. Had there been awareness about waste reduction and management, the case would have been different.

Construction Parallels Waste production
The construction industry has been the second largest economic activity after agriculture in India. It contributes around 11% of the GDP of our nation, but at the same time produces a million tonnes of wastes. These wastes are anything that generates additional costs but does not add value to the project. Increased levels of construction and demolition activities have accentuated the problem of waste generation on fields.

Cutting off scraps
The lack of awareness and education among the workforce are the major challenges associated with the implementation of waste minimization practices. There are some practices like waste quantification, waste segregation and application of the 3R (reduce, reuse & recycle) principle which are gaining popularity. The 3R principle has many benefits. It reduces our costs from purchasing fewer materials and lowers the possibility of accidents by proper material handling and storing, thus ensuring a work-friendly site. It helps reduce CO2 emissions and conserve natural resources.

Maneuvering with the waste
It is basically monitoring, handling, prevention, classification, treatment and disposal of solid wastes. Some simple actions of common sense combined with knowledge results in proper waste management.Some of the measures are a separate line of collection and transportation of different types of C&D (construction and demolition) wastes, proper storage, disposal of only that part which cannot be used, identifying the generators of C&D wastes, etc.

Waste management programs are in its beginner stage in India.The nation’s first plant for recycling C&D wastes was set up in Burari, Delhi.